Ngữ pháp Câu Điều Kiện Conditionals AND IF sentences

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UNIT 1
Câu Điều Kiện Conditionals AND IF sentences

A. Cấu trúc chung của câu điều kiện gồm 2 phần (IF clause - Main clause)
I.Câu điều kiện dạng I (Câu điều kiện có thực ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai )
If + S + V ( s , es ) , S + will / shall / can / may / + V
Eg
1
: If I have enough money , I will buy a new car.
Eg
2
: If she doesn't study hard , she will fail the exam.
Eg
3
: The plane may be deverted if the fog gets thicker.
Eg
4
: If you want to lose weight , you must eat less bread.
If + S + V ( s , es ) , S + V ( s , es )
Để diễn tả sự thật hiển hiện hoặc một thói quen:
Eg
5
: If you heat ice , it turns to water.
Eg
6
: If you are thirsty , you drink
Unless = If ...... not
Eg
7
: If you don't study hard , you will fail the exam.
= Unless you study hard , you will fail the exam.
II. Câu điều kiện dạng II (Câu điều kiện không có thực ở hiện tại)
If + S + Ved / were , S + would / could / should / + V
Eg
8
: If I had a map , I would lend it to you.
In fact: I don't have a map now.
Eg
9
: I'd be in time for work if I lived near my office.
In fact: I don't live near my office.
III. Câu điều kiện dạng III (Câu điều kiện không có thực ở quá khứ).
Form: If + S + had + P
II
+ S + shoud / would + have + P
II
.
Eg
10
: If I had had money , I would have bought it.
In fact: I didn’t have money , I didn’t buy it.
Eg
11
: If she hadn’t been ill , she wouldn’t have stayed at home.
IV. Sử dụng thể tiếp diễn trong câu điều kiện (using progressive verb form)
Eg
12:
True: It’s raining right now, so I will not go for a walk.
Conditional: If it were not raining right now, I would go for a walk.
Eg
13
: True: I am not living in Chile, I ‘m not working at a bank.
Conditional: If I were living in Chile, I would be working at a bank
Eg
14:
True: It was raining yesterday afternoon, so I did not go for a walk
Conditional: If it had not been raining, I would have gone for a walk.
Eg
15
: True: I was not living in Chile last year; I was not working at a bank
Conditional: If I had been living in Chile last year, I would have been working at a bank.
V. Sử dụng câu điều kiện tổng hợp:
Eg
16
: True: I didn't eat breakfast several hours ago, so I'm hungry now
Conditional: If I had eaten breakfast several hours ago, I wouldn't be hungry
Eg
17
: True: He’s not a good student. He didn't study for the test yesterday. Conditional: If he were a good student ,
he would have studied for the test
VI. Sử dụng câu điều kiện thiếu "If " dùng để nhấn mạnh:
Eg
18
: Were I you , I wouldn’t do that.
Conditional: If I were you, I wouldn’t do that.
Eg
19
: Had I known, I would have told you.
Conditional: If I had known, I would have told you.
Eg
20
: Should anyone call, please talk a message.
Conditional: If anyone should call, please talk a message.
VII. Sử dụng câu điều kiện "Implied" - ám chỉ:
Eg
21
: I would never have succeed without your help.
Implied condition = If you hadn't helped me.
VIII. Sử dụng câu điều kiện phụ thuộc " But for"
Eg
21
: I would never have succeed without your help.
Implied condition = If you hadn't helped me.
Dùng để nói một việc này phụ thuộc vào một việc kia , hoặc ng−ời khác.
Eg
22:
My father pays my fees. But for that I wouldn’t be here.
= If it were not for my father's fees, I wouldn’t be here.
Eg
23
: But for Jim's support, I wouldn’t have got the job.
= If it hadn't been for Jim's support, I wouldn’t have got the job.
UNIT 2 CÂU ƯỚC - WISH AND OTHER USES
I.Câu ước cho tương lai:
S + wish ( es ) + S + would / could / should + V
Eg
24
: Fact: It’s raining.
I wish It would stop raining. 
Eg
25
: Fact: My dream is to go to American one day.
I wish I would go to American one day. 
II.Câu ước không có thực ở hiện tại
Form: S + wish ( es ) + S + Ved / were
Eg
26
: Fact: Now, I don't have much money.
I wish I had much money
III. Câu ước không có thực ở quá khứ:
Form: S + wish ( es ) + S + had + P
II
Eg
27
: Fact: I forget learning English.
I wish I had learnt English.
Eg
28
: Fact: I didn't go to the class yesterday.
I wish I had gone to the class. 
Note: If only
* If only + simple tense
Eg
29
: If only he comes in time.
= We hope he will come in time.
Eg
30
: If only he will listen to her.
= We hope he will be willing to listen to her.
If only + past = S wish ( es ) + S + Ved
If only + past perfect = S wish ( es ) + S + had + P
II
If only + would V = S wish ( es ) + S + would V
Eg
31
: If only Tom were here.
= I wish Tom were here.
Eg
32
: If only you hadn't said “ Liar “.
= I wish you hadn't said “ Liar “.
Eg
33
: If only they would stop following me.
= I wish they would stop following me.
In fact: they don't stop following me.
As if / As though
Thường nội dung đi sau “As If / As though“ là trái thực tế. Trong trường hợp đó, động từ sử dụng giống như trong
câu
điều kiện.
I. Diễn tả một hành động không có thực ở hiện tại.
S + present tense + as if / as though + S + Ved.
Or past tense ( với ý thuật lại )
Eg
34
: He acts as if / as though he were rich.
In fact: He isn't rich.
Note: Thuật lại:
Eg
35
: She talked to him as if he were a child.
In fact: He isn't a child.
II. Diễn tả một hành động không có thực trong quá khứ.
S + past tense + as If/as though S + had + P
II
Eg
36
: Jim looked as if he had seen a ghost.
In fact: He didn't see a ghost.
Eg
37:
She acted as though she had never met him.
In fact: She has met him or she met him.
Eg
38
: She looked as if / as though she had run 10 miles.
Note: As if / As though có 2 ý nghĩa:
- Được sử dụng như một thể loại điều kiện ( đã đề cập ở trên).
- Được sử dụng để so sánh bình thường.
As if / As though= like = nh− thÓ lµ.
Eg
39
: It looks like rain ⇒ It looks as if it's going to rain.
UNIT 3
WORDS THAT INTRODUCE ADVERB CLAUSE
OF CONDITION

(IF CLAUSES)
If in case ( that ) only if
Whether or not in the event ( that ) providing ( that )
Even if unless provided ( that )
I. Whether or not:
Eg
40
: Im going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it's cold.
= Im going to go swimming tomorrow if it's cold if it's not cold
-> S dng whether or not din t iu kin cho dự kt qu nh th no chng na thỡ kt qu vn khụng thay i.
II. Even if:
Eg
41
: I have decided to go swimming tomorrow. Even if the weathers cold, Im going to go swimming. Even if ngha ca chỳng
gn ging nh whether or not.
Note:
Compare:
Eg
42
: If Ann studies hard , she will pass the exam.
Even if Mary studies hard , she won't pass the exam.
III. In case ( that ) v in the event ( that ).
Eg 43: Ill be at my uncles house in case you need to reach me.
Eg
44
: In the event that you need to reach me , Ill be at my uncles house
Note:
In case ( that ) v in the event ( that ) + clause.
In case of v in case event of + Nphrase.
Eg
45
: In case of trouble, call the police
= In case ( that ) there's trouble, call the police.
Eg
46
: In the event of rain, the picnic will be cancelled.
= In the event ( that ) it rains, the picnic will be cancelled.
IV. Only if và Providing that / Provided that / As(So) long as
Eg
47
: The picnic will be cancelled only If it rain.
* Only If by t phn iu kin duy nht.
Note:
Eg
48
: Only if it rains will the picnic be cancelled.
Nu Only if u cõu thỡ cú hin tng o ng.
As long as
so long as u cú ngha " If " hoc
provided that" On condition that "
providing that
Eg
49
: You can use my car as long as ( so long as ) you drive carefully.
( You can use my car but you must drive carefully -thiss a condition)
Eg
50
: Travelling by car is convenient provided (that) / providing (that) you have somewhere to park
Eg
51
: Provided ( that) she studies hard , shell pass her exam.
Providing (that)
Note:
Providing that = Provided that = so long as
= as long as = if hoc only if
Khi chúng ta nói về tơng lai, không đợc sử dụng will sau: unless /as long as / provided / providing và only If.
V. Otherwise và or ( Else )
Eg
52
: I always eat breakfast. Otherwise, I get hungry during class.
( otherwise để diễn tả ý trái với sự thật ) -> If I don't eat breakfast, I'll get hungry during class Eg
53
: I always eat breakfast, or
(else), I get hungry during class.
If I dont eat breakfast, I'll get hungry during class.
(Or (else) và otherwise giống nghĩa nhau )
Note: Otherwise là từ chuyển ý.
Or ( else ) là liên từ.
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(HNU - G6* - H2T)
UNIT 4 Câu bị động - The passive 1
Trong tiếng anh có 2 loại câu: Câu chủ động & Câu bị động Trong câu chủ động thì chủ ngữ thực hiện hành động.
They write letters
S V O
Nhng ở dạng bị động thì chủ ngữ chịu tác động của hành động, có nghĩa là tân ngữ của câu chủ động đợc làm chủ ngữ
trong câu bị động.
Letters are written by them
-> Cấu tạo chung của 1 câu bị động:
S (o) + tobe + P
II
+ by O ( s )
Trong đó: To be: là động từ dao động đảm bảo 2 yếu tố số ít /số nhiều của chủ ngữ, thì thời của động từ
PII
: là động từ cố định
* Các dạng bị động cơ bản:
1. Thì hiện tại đơn:
( + ) S
(o)
+ tobe (is, are, am) + P
II
+ by O
( s )
( -) S
(o)
+ tobe not + P
II
+ by O
( s )
( ? ) Tobe + S
(o)
+ P
II
+ by O
( s )
?
Eg
3
: Mai cleans this room-> This room is cleaned by Mai.
Eg
4
: I dont do the exercise -> The exercise isnt done by me.
Eg
5
: Do you study the lesson often ?->Is the lesson studied often by you ?
2. Thì quá khứ đơn:
( + ) S
(o) + tobe (was, were) + PII
+ by O
( s )
( - ) S
(o)
+ tobe not + P
II
+ by O
( s )
( ? ) Tobe + S
(o )
+ P
II
+ by O
( s )
?
Eg
6
: Somebody cleaned the rooms yesterday ->The rooms were cleaned yesterday
Eg
7
: Tom didnt sing that song -> That song wasnt sung by Tom
Eg
8
: Didnt Jim dop the cup -> Was not the cup dropped by Jim ?
3. Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn:
( + ) S
(o)
+ tobe (is, are, am) + being + P
II
+ by O
( s )
( - ) S
(o) + tobe not + being + PII
+ by O
( s )
( ? ) Tobe +S
(o) + being + P2 + by O ( s )
?
Eg
9:
Is somebody cleaning the room at the moment ? -> Is the room being cleaned at the moment ?
4. Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn:
( + ) S
(o)
+ tobe (was, were) + being + P
II
+ by O
( s)
( -) S
(o)
+ tobe not + being + P
II
+ O
( s )
( ? ) Tobe + S
(o) + being +PII
+ by O
( s )
?
Eg
10
: Mai was doing her homework when I arrived-> Mais homework was being done by her when I arrived
5. Thì hiện tại hoàn thành:
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(HNU - G6* - H2T)
( + ) S ( o ) + have (has )+ been + P
II
+ by O ( s )
( - ) S ( o ) + haven't(hasn't) + been + P
II
+ by O ( s )
( ? ) Have(Has )+ S ( o ) + been + P
II
+ by O ( s ) ?
Eg
11
: I have built the house
6. Quá khứ hoàn thành:
7. Tơng lai đơn giản:
8. Tơng lai hoàn thành:
-> The house has been built by me.
( + ) S ( o ) + had + been +P
II
+ by O ( s )
( - ) S ( o ) + had not + been + P
II
+ by O ( s )
( ? ) Had + S ( o ) + been + P
II
+ by O ( s ) ?
( + ) S ( o ) + will / shall +be + P
II
+ by O ( s )
( -) S ( o ) + won't / shan't + be + P
II
+ by O ( s )
( ? ) Will / shall + S ( o ) +be + P
II
+ by O ( s )
( + ) S ( o ) + will have been + P
II
+ by O ( s )
( -) S ( o ) + won't have been + P
II
+ by O ( s )
( ? ) Will + S ( o ) + have been + P
II
+ by O ( s ) ?
Eg
12
: Alice will have written the report.
-> The report will have been written by Alice
9. Tơng lai gần:
Active: S + tobe (is / are / am )+ going to + V
-> Passive: ( + ) S ( o ) + tobe + going to be + P
II
( - ) S ( o ) + tobe not going to be + P
II
+ O ( s )
( ? ) Tobe + S (o) + going to be + P
II
+ by O ( s ) ?
Eg
13
: Im going to sell my house
-> My house is going to be sold by me
10. Các động từ đặc biệt:
Can, Could, May, Might , Must , Have to, Would, Will, Should, Shall, Ought To, Used to , Need , Had Better , + Be + P
II
Eg
14
: You must do the exercise before its too late.
Eg
15
: Do you have to wear uniform ?
Eg
16
: I need buy these books.
Eg
17
: I need to buy these books.
Note:
-> The exercise must be done before its too late.
-> Does the uniform have to be worn by you ? -> These books need be bought.
-> These books need to be bought.
My shoes need cleaning = My shoes need to be cleaned
Eg
18
: I will have to do all my homework. -> All my homework will have to be done by me.
Eg
19
: Are you going to have to wear uniform ? -> Is uniform going to have to be worn ?
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(HNU - G6* - H2T)
UNIT 5 Câu bị động - The passive 2
11. Câu bị động nhờ bảo:
Khi chủ ngữ không trực tiếp thực hiện hành động chúng ta sử dụng cấu trúc nhờ bảo have - passive
Have / (Get) + Sth + done
Eg
20
: I always have my mother wash my clothes.
- > I always have / get my clothes washed by my mother.
12. Cấu trúc câu bị động đặc biệt (It's said that....):
Eg
21
: People say that // he beats his wife.-> It is said that he beats his wife.
-> Hes said to beat his wife.
Eg
22
: People think that hes 105 years old. -> Its thought that hes 105 years old.
-> Hes thought to be 105 years old.
Cấu trúc này thờng đi với các động từ:
Think , Know , Believe , Report , Understand , Except , Consider , Allege.
* Note:
ở mẫu câu này mệnh đề 2 ở thể quá khứ , hiện tại hoàn thành , quá khứ hoàn thành thì ta phải sử dụng: to have + P
II
Eg
23
: People reported that two people were killed in the explosion.
-> It was report that two people were killed in the explosion.
-> Two people were reported to have been killed in the explosion.
* Note:
Đới với mệnh đề 2 ở dạng tiếp diễn , tơng lai , "can , could , must , have sb do st ". thì
is losing -> to be losing
will end-> to end
can do-> to be able to do:
Could do-> to have been able to do
must do-> to have to do
have sb do st -> to have st done
Eg
24
: Its said that there is a secret tunnel between them.
-> There is said to be a secret tunnel between them.
Nói thêm: ( Be ) supposed to...
Đôi khi It's supposed to.. = It's said to...
Eg
25
: Lets go and see that film. Its supposed to be very good.
( = Its said to be very good )
Nhng đôi khi "supposed to" , "something is supposed to happen"
= It's planned , arranged or expected.
Eg
26
: The train was supposed to arrive at 11.30 but it was an hour late
(The train was expected to arrive at 11.30 according to the timetable)
Ngoài ra: "You are not supposed to do sth" = It's not allowed or advisable for you to do it. Eg
27
: Mr Bord is much better after his illness but he is still not supposed to do any
heavy work
(= his doctor have advised him not to do any heavy work )
* Note:
Eg
28
: It's your duty to obey him = you are supposed to obey him.
Eg
29
: You are supposed to have finished = You should have finished.
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(HNU - G6* - H2T)
UNIT 6 Câu bị động - The passive 3
13. Cấu trúc bị động của Verb patterns:
Verb + V.ing + Object.
like doing sth -> like being done.
Eg
30
: I dont like people telling me what to do.
Eg
31
: Most people like giving presents.
Eg
32
: They saw him climming over the fence.
Eg
33
: He wants someone to take photographs.
Eg
34
: He likes you to write the test.
* Verbs of perception: See , watch , hear...
-> I dont like being told what to do
-> Most people like being given presents. Verb + Object + V.ing.
-> He was seen climming over the fence.
Verb + Object + to V
-> He wants photographs to be taken
-> He likes the test to be written by you.
Active: S + see + O + V (Ving) -> passive: S + be seen + to V( Ving )
Eg
35
: They saw her coming in -> She was seen coming in.
Eg
36:
He heard the bell ring-> The bell was heard to ring.
* Imperative sentence ( câu mệnh lệnh ):
V + O + A -> Let + O + be + P
II
+ A.
Eg
37
: Write your name here.-> Let your name be written here.
* ( S ) + let + sb + do + st.
Eg
38
: He let me go out. -> I was allowed to go out.
Eg
39
: Let me go -> I was allowed to go.
Eg
40
: Dont let others see you. -> Don't let yourself be seen by others.
Eg
41
: Everyone believes him right.-> He's believed to be right.
* Sau các động từ: advise / beg / order / recommend / urge + Indirect object + Infinive + Object, có thể có 2 dạng bị động.
Eg
42
: He urged the council to reduce the rate. -> The council was / were urged to reduce the rate.
-> He urged that the rates should be reduced the rate.
* Sau các động từ:
agree, be anxious, arrange, be determined, determine, decide, demand + to V + O, chỉ có một dạng bị động: that -...
. should.
Eg
43
: He decided to sell the house -> He decided that /the house should be sold.
Gerund: Sau động từ: advise, insist, propose, recommend , suggest + gerund + O -> That -... .should.
Eg
44
: The students suggested buying flowers for teacher on the Teachers Day.
->The students suggested that flowers should be bought for teacher on the Teachers Day
Chú ý:
* Make sb do st -> to be made to V.
Eg
45
: They made me hand over my passport. -> I was made to hand over my passport.
Eg
46
: I remember that my father took me to the place. -> I remember being taken to the place by my father.
* Nếu chủ ngữ ở dạng phủ định-> Khi viết câu bị động, động từ phải nhận phủ định.
Eg
47
: No one did the exercise -> The exercise wasn't done.
* Nếu câu chủ động có 2 tân ngữ thì có thể chuyển thành 2 chủ ngữ trong 2 câu bị động khác nhau.
Eg
48
: He gave me a book. -> I was given a book by him.
O
1
O
2
-> A book was given me by him.
* Một số động từ thờng có 2 tân ngữ: give , tell , show , lend , get , write , pay , sell , buy , bring * Một số nội động từ cũng có bị động nhng phải giữ lại phần giới từ của
động từ đó.
Eg
49
: My wife spoke to the man. -> The man was spoken to by my wife.
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(HNU - G6* - H2T)
UNIT 7 Danh động từ - Gerund 1
A. Định nghĩa: Danh động từ là một hình thức tơng đơng với
danh từ. Nó có cùng một dạng thức nh hiện tại phân từ (Present Participle) nghĩa là
động từ nguyên mẫu thêm đuôi "ing". Vì nó mang tính chất của cả danh từ và động từ nên
nó đợc gọi là
"Danh động từ".
Eg
1
: Playing, walking, swimming.
Eg
2
: - Playing tennis is fun. (1)
Eg
3
: - We enjoy swimming. (2)
"playing" và "swimming" là danh động từ. Câu (1) playing
đợc sử dụng nh là chủ ngữ.
Câu (2)
"swimming" đợc sử dụng nh là tân ngữ.
Note: So sánh việc sử dụng "The - ing" form:
Eg
4
: Walking is good exercise
=> walking = gerund = subject.
Eg
5
: Bob and Ann are playing tennis
=> playing = a present participle,đợc sử dụng trong thì tiếp diễn.
B. Chức năng - Functions
1. Làm chủ ngữ (Subject):
Eg
6
: Swimming is an interesting sport.
Eg
7
: Talking in class disturbs the teacher.
Eg
8
: Seeing is believing.
2. Làm tân ngữ (Object):
Eg
9
: She likes swimming.
Eg
10
: I don't like troubling others.
Eg
11
: Have you finished writing your exercises?
3 Làm bổ ngữ cho "to be":
Eg
12
: My hope is passing the entrance examination to one university.
Eg
13
: My hobby is going for a walk after dinner.
Eg
14
: Our duty is finishing the work today.
Eg
15
: All we have to do now is studying well.
4 Làm tân ngữ cho giới từ (Prepositional Object): Eg
12
: We thought of going to the party.
Eg
13
: I object to your coming late.
Eg
14
: She apologised for not telling the truth.
Eg
15
: I'm interested in learning English.
Eg
16
: She's good at speaking English.
Một số V + preposition và Adj + preposition :
1. talk about 1. interested in
2. apologise for2. good at >< bad at
3. succeed in 3. fed up with
4. insist on4. the advantage(s) of
5. think of 5. the disadvantage(s) of
6. dream of 6. tired of
7. (dis) approve of 7. surprised at/by
8. decide against8. fond of
9. feel like 9. in favour of
10. look forward to 10. disappointed with/in
11. congratulate on 11. happy about
12. accuse of 12. instead of
13. suspect of 13. in spite of
14. prevent from 14. excited about
15. stop from15. worried about
16. thank for 16. responsible for
17. forgive for 17. guilty of
18. warn against 18. grateful to/for
19. take advantage of 19. proud of
20. take part in 20. patient with
21. blame for21. polite to
22. object to22. in addition to
23. to be used to 23. (In) capable of + Ving
24. complain bout/to/of 24. crazy about
25. live for/as/at/on/in25. bored with
26. participate in26. keen on
27. decide on
27. able to V
EXERCISE ON GERUND
I Supply the gerund form of the verb in the following sentences
01 We appreciate (hear) from you
02 The man denied (take) the money
03 We cannot risk (nvest) so much money
04 The driver could not avoid ( hit) the curb
05 We are considering (move) to Viet Nam
06 They have finished (eat)
07 We both enjoy (dance) very much
08Do you mind (come) back later?
09 He admitted (hide) the money
10 She says she doesnt mind (wait) for us
11 Steve and Tom have stooped (speak) to each other 12 We enjoy (listen) to music
13 He is going to stop (study) English
14 We will enjoy (use) your cottage at the beach while you are away 15 They have finally
finished (paint) our apartment
16 Would you mind (open) the window?
17 She denied (change) the address on the package 18 We are considering (buy) a new car
19 We would appreciate (receive) your immediately 20 He finally admitted (make) the
mistake
21 I dont mind (ride) the subway
II. Supply an appropriate preposition and verb form
01 Alice isnt interested ___(look) for a new job 02 Henry is excited ___(leave) for India
03 You are capable ___(do) better work
04 I have no excuse ___(be) late
05 Im accustomed ___(have) a bog breakfast
06 The rain prevented us ___(complete) the work
07 Fred is always complaining ___(have) a headache
08 Instead __(study), Margaret went to a ball game with some of her friends
9 Thank you ___(help) me
carry the packages to the post office 10 Mrs Grant insisted ___(know) the whole truth
11 He showed us how to get to his house ___(draw) a map
12 You should take advantage ___(live) here
13 Laura had a good reason ___(go, not) to class yesterday
14 Everyone in the neighborhood participated ___(search) for the lost child
15 I apologized to Diane
___(make) her wait for me
16 The weather is terrible tonight. I dont blame you ___(want, not) to go to the meeting
17 Who is responsible ___(wash) and (dry) the dishes after dinner?
18 In addition ___(go) to school
full-time, Sam has a part-time job 19 The angry look on his face stopped me ___(speak)
my mind 20 Where should we go for dinner tonight? Would you object __(go) to an
Italian restaurant?
21 The mayor made another public statement for the purpose ___(clarify) the new tax
proposal
22 The thief was accused __(steal) a womans purse
23 The jury found Mr. Adams guilty ___(take) money from the
company he worked for an (keep) it for himself
24 Bill isnt used ___(wear) a suit and tie every day
25 Im going to visit my family during the school vacation. Im
looking forward __(eat) my mothers cooking and (sleep) in my
own bed
LECTURER: NGUYEN HAI JIM (HNU - G6* - H2T) TEACHING: GRAMMAR,
LISTENING, WRITING - TOEFL , IELTS , ôn thi đại học TEL : 8631212
LECTURE ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR Y2K WRITTEN BY NGUYEN HAI JIM


(HNU - G6* - H2T)
UNIT 8 Danh động từ - Gerund 2
5. Những động từ sau đây đợc đi theo là một "to.V"
hoặc một "V-ing" mà nghĩa của chúng không thay đổi:
A. begin, start, continue, cease:
Eg
21
: It begins raining.
Eg
22
: It begins to rain.
B. can't bear, can't stand:
Eg
23
: I can't bear seeing you.
Eg
24
: I can't bear to see you.
C. like, love, hate, neglect, intent:
Eg
25
: I like going out.
Eg
27
: I like to go out.
Note: would like (love) + to.V
D. advise, allow, permit, recommend:
Đối với các động từ kể trên mà có tân ngữ trực tiếp đi kèm thì sử dụng "to V":
Eg
27
: He advises me to apply It at once.
Eg
28
: She recommends housewives to buy the big tins. Eg
29
: They don't allow us to park
here.
Nhng không có tân ngữ đi kèm thì sử dụng "V-ing": Eg
30
: She advised applying It at
once.
Eg
31
: She recommends buying the big tins.
Eg
32
: She doesn't allow parking.
E. prefer:
Prefer + to.V + than + to V
Prefer + V-ing + to + V-ing.
Eg
33
: I prefer staying at home to going out tonight.
Eg
34
: I prefer to stay at home than to go out tonight.
F. Sau các cấu trúc It needs/ requires/ wants (bị động): Eg
35
: This lock needs oiling.
Eg
36
: Their tyres require inflating.
Eg
37
: Garden plants want watering everymorning.
6. Có một số động từ sau là một "to.V" or "V-ing"
nhng nghĩa lại thay
đổi
hoàn toàn: Remember,
regret, forget, try, stop, need, help, can't help, go on:
Remember + to do (nhớ sẽ phải làm gì)
Remember + V-ing (nhớ lại đã làm gì)
Eg
38
: I always remember to lock the door.
Eg
39
: I remember seeing the Alps for the first time.
Note:
Eg
40
: I remember doing the test
I remember being done the test.
forget + to.V (quên phải làm gì)
forget + doing (quên đã làm gì)
Eg
41
: Don't forget to learn the text by heart. Eg
42
: I forget locking the door.
Try + to V (cố gắng)
Try + Ving (thử)
Eg
43
: I try to learn English, but I'm not successful Eg
44
: I try making friends with her
regret + to.V (tiếc phải nói cho ai về cái gì đó)
regret + V-ing (tiếc đã làm gì trong quá khứ)
Eg
45
: I regret to tell you that you fail the test.
Eg
46
: I regret lending him some money. He never paid me back.
Note:
I wish I hadn't lent him some money. He never paid me back.
stop + to.V (dừng để làm gì)
stop + V-ing (dừng/bỏ hẳn việc đó)
Eg
47
: We stopped to talk.
Eg
48
: He stopped smoking 2 months ago.
need + to.V (cần thiết cho ai phải làm gì đó)
need + V-ing = need + to be + P
II
(cần đợc làm gì)
Eg
49
: He needs to work harder if he wants to pass the
exam.Eg
50
: The batteries in the radio need changing
The batteries in the radio need to be changed.
help: giúp đỡ
can't help: không thể không, không thể nhịn
can't resist: không thể không
resist: chống cự, kháng cự.
can't bear: không chịu đợc
can't endure: không chịu nổi
Eg
51
: My father always helps me do my homework. Eg
52
: I can't help laughing at the
sight of the well known comedians on stage.
Eg
53
: He could resist no longer.
Eg
54
: We can't resist thinking that she is your meal ticket.
(Chúng tôi không thể không nghĩ rằng cô ta nuôi anh) Eg
55
: They can't bear being short
of money.
Eg
56
: She can't endure seeing beggars wander about the streets
go on doing ( = continue doing sth)
go on to do ( = do or say something new).
Eg
57
: The teacher went on talking for this topic for 2 hours.
Eg
58
: After discussing the economy, the teacher then
went on to talk foreign policy.
I Complete the following sentences, once with the
gerund and then with the
infinitive
01 She loves (work) for herself
02 He intends (leave) tomorrow
03 She will try (study) in the library
04 They will start (work) there next week
05 She hates (do) secretarial work
06 She will continue (work) in that same office until June
07 He prefers (dance)
with his wife
08 I neglected (mention) it to Bill
09 He likes (teach) English to foreign students 10 They will begin (build their
new home soon 11 He prefers (watch) television
12 She intends (stay) right where she is
13 He loves (criticize) others
14 We tried (find) an apartment near the park 15 They have finally started
(speak) to each other 16 Rose loves (do) that kind of work
17 They continue (send) us a bill for the work
II Fill in the blank - ing form or infinitive of the verbs in brackets
1 I shall always remember (meet) you for the first time in England
2 Remember (do) these English
exercises before going out with your friends
3 Shes always forgetting (give) back the money she bowrrowed from
me
4 I shall never forget (meet) the King
5 Every 45 I stop work (drink) a cup of tea
6 My father really must stop (smoke). He is in poor health now
7 How long do you intend to go on (play) those bloody records?
8 The form-master welcomed the new pupils and then went
on (explain) the new
school regulations
9 I dont regret (tell) her what I thought, even if it upset her
10 I reget (inform) you that I am unable to
ofeer you employment
11 My brother likes (walk) in the rain
12 I like
(get) up early so that I can get plenty of work
done before I leave home for work
13 Sorry we dont allow (smoke) in this lecture room 14 We dont allow people
(smoke) in here
15 I tried (send) her flowers but it didnt have any effects
LECTURER: NGUYEN HAI JIM (HNU - G6* - H2T) TEACHING:
GRAMMAR, LISTENING, WRITING - TOEFL , IELTS , ôn thi đại học TEL :
8631212
LECTURE ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR Y2K WRITTEN BY NGUYEN HAI JIM


(HNU - G6* - H2T)
UNIT 9 Danh động từ - Gerund 3
7. Sự khác nhau giữa Afraid of V-ing/Afraid to V:
to be Afraid to do = mình không muốn làm điều đó vì nó
nguy hiểm hoặc kết quả có
thể tồi tệ.
to be Afraid of V-ing = có thể một điều gì đó tồi tệ xảy ra. Eg
59
: I was afraid to go
(1)
near
the dog because I was afraid of being
(2)
bitten.
I'm afraid that: tôi e rằng + clause, I'm afraid so: tôi e là nh vậy.
Interested in doing = mình nghĩ về việc đó, mình muốn
làm việc đó (sở thích).
Interested to do: đặc biệt đi với các động từ ( hear, see, know, read, learn), có nghĩa là
một ai đó , một việc gì đó tạo ra cảm giác thích thú cho ai đó.
Eg
60
: There's a football match on TV tonight. I'm interested in watching it.
Eg
61
: I was interested to hear that Diane has got a new job. Note: Interest on
Interesting to sb
Interested in
Sorry to do = to apologise just before we do st Sorry for doing = to apologise for st you
did before. Sorry that + clause
Sorry to have + P
II
Eg
62
: I'm sorry to bother you, but I need to talk to you. Note: Đối với Sorry to (hear) để
bày tỏ sự thông cảm đối với ai đó.
9 Go + V-ing:
Eg
63
: I'm sorry for shouting at you yesterday.
= I'm sorry I shouted at you yesterday.
8. Các thành ngữ đi theo "V-ing":
It's no use / good + V-ing: đừng vô ích.
Eg
64
: There's nothing you can do about this situation, so
it's no use worrying about
it.
Eg
65
: It's no good trying to persuade me. You won't succeed.
There's no point in + V-ing (không có lý do gì để).
Eg
66
: There is no point in having a car if you never use it
Eg
67
: There was no point in waiting any longer, so we went.
It's (not) worth + V-ing (đáng và không đáng)
Eg
68
: I live only in a short walk from here, so it's not worth
taking a taxi.
(Have) difficulty (in) + V-ing (khó khăn trong công việc)
Eg
69
: I had difficulty finding a place to live.
Eg
70
: Did you have difficulty in getting a visa?
Note: many difficulties but much difficulty
A waste of time/money + V-ing / to V (phí thời gian, phí tiền)
Eg
71
: It was a waste of time reading
that book. It was rubbish.
Eg
72
: It was a waste of money buying things you don't need.
Spend/waste (time) + V-ing (tốn/phí thời gian làm gì) Eg
73
: He spent hours trying to
repair the clock.
Eg
74
: I waste a lot of time day dreaming. (Be) busy + V-ing (bận làm gì đó).
Eg
75
: She said she couldn't see me. She was too busy doing other things.
(a)Did you go shopping? "Go" is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to express, for
(b)We went fishing yesterday the most part, recreational activities.
Go + Gerund
go birdwatching go hiking go sightseeing
go boating go hunting go skating
go bowlinggo jogging go skiing
go camping go moutain climbinggo sledding
go canoeing go running go swimming
go dancing go sailing go tobogganing
go fishing go shopping go window shopping
LECTURER: NGUYEN HAI JIM (HNU - G6* - H2T) TEACHING: GRAMMAR, LISTENING, WRITING - TOEFL , IELTS , ôn thi đại học TEL : 8631212
LECTURE ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR Y2K WRITTEN BY NGUYEN HAI JIM


(HNU - G6* - H2T)
UNIT 10 Danh động từ - Gerund 4
10. Attribute (Định ngữ)
Gerund (V-ing) đứng trớc N:
Eg
76
: We often used sleeping-bag when travelling.
a bag which is used for sleeping.
Eg
77
: They are going to the dancing hall every Saturday. Gerund (V-ing) đứng sau N:
N + of V-ing:
Eg
78
: My teacher has got a good method of teaching. Eg
79
: You should stop your habit
of getting up late. 11. Adverbial Modifier (Trạng ngữ):
By/Without + V-ing (Trạng ngữ chỉ cách thức):
Eg
80
: He earns money by doing manual work.
doing brain work.
Smuggling.
Eg
81
: I improve my English by speaking English to English as much as possible.
Eg
82
: I persuaded them by setting a bright example for them. Eg
83
: I can answer the teacher's
question without looking at the book.
Eg
84
: He looked at me without saying anything. Eg
85
: He came in without knocking.
For + V-ing (Chỉ nguyên nhân, mục đích): Eg
86
: Money is used for buying things.
Eg
87
: People have got two eyes for seeing more.
After/at/in/on/before + V-ing (chỉ thời gian): Eg
88
: On returning home I found that the
door was open. Eg
89
: After repairing my bike I took a rest.
Eg
90
: He had dinner with him before leaving.
Sau các liên từ When và While:
Eg
91
: When entering the bathroom, he caught a mouse nibbling the bar of soap.
Eg
92
: We ate while listening to the radio.
12. Danh động từ có thể đợc bổ nghĩa bởi một tính từ sở hữu hoặc đại từ không xác định.
Eg
93
: I can't imagine his marrying a girl of that sort.
Eg
94
: We came to class late. Mr Lee complained about
the fact.
Mr Lee complained about our coming to class late. Chúng ta có thể nói:
Mr Lee complained about us coming to class late.
Đối với những danh từ riêng chúng ta có thể làm nh sau:
Mary came to class late. Mr Lee complained about the fact.
Mr Lee complained about Mary's coming to class late. hoặc: Mr Lee complained about
Mary coming to class late. 13. Các hình thái khác nhau về thì và dạng:
Không xác địnhHoàn thành
(Active) Asking Having asked
(Passive)being asked Having been asked
Danh động từ không xác định diễn đạt một hành động cũng xảy ra với hành động của
động từ chính.
Eg
95
: He likes asking questions.
He likes being asked questions.
Danh động từ hoàn thành diễn đạt hành động xảy ra trớc hành động của động từ
chính.
Eg
96
: I'm sorry for having done it (Active)
I'm sorry for having been done it (Passive).
Eg
97
: Arthur said he was sorry he had hurt her feeling.
Arthur apologised for having hurt her feeling.
LECTURER: NGUYEN HAI JIM (HNU - G6* - H2T) TEACHING: GRAMMAR,
LISTENING, WRITING - TOEFL , IELTS , ôn thi đại học TEL : 8631212

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