Hướng dẫn sử dụng phần mềm CircuitMaker - 1

CircuitMaker
Integrated Schematic Capture
and Circuit Simulation
User Manual
®
for Windows
Revision C
CircuitMaker 6
CircuitMaker PRO
ii
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a
commitment on the part of MicroCode Engineering. The software described in this document is
furnished under a license agreement or nondisclosure agreement. The software may be used or
copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. It is against the law to copy the
software on any medium except as specifically allowed in the license or nondisclosure agreement.
The purchaser may make one copy of the software for backup purposes. No part of this manual
may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems, for any
purpose other than the purchaser’s personal use, without the express written permission of
MicroCode Engineering.
Copyright © 1988-1998 MicroCode Engineering, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
CircuitMaker, TraxMaker and SimCode are trademarks or registered trademarks of MicroCode
Engineering, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
MicroCode Engineering, Inc.
927 West Center
Orem UT 84057 USA
Phone (801) 226-4470
FAX (801) 226-6532
www.microcode.com
License Agreement iii
MicroCode Engineering—Software License Agreement
PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING LICENSE AGREEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE OPEN-
ING THE ENVELOPE CONTAINING THE SOFTWARE. OPENING THIS ENVELOPE INDICATES
THAT YOU HAVE READ AND ACCEPTED ALL THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS
AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS IN THIS AGREEMENT, PROMPTLY
RETURN THIS PRODUCT FOR A REFUND.
CircuitMaker is a proprietary product of MicroCode Engineering and is protected by Copyright
Law. MicroCode Engineering grants you a non-exclusive license to use CircuitMaker subject to
the terms and restrictions of this license agreement. You are receiving a license to use
CircuitMaker, MicroCode Engineering retains title to CircuitMaker and is the sole copyright
owner. You, as an authorized end user of CircuitMaker are permitted certain rights to use
CircuitMaker as defined in this license agreement.

You are authorized to use CircuitMaker on only one (1) computer at a time. You must obtain
additional license agreements before using the software on additional computers or on a
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You may make a backup copy of CircuitMaker for the sole purpose of protecting your
investment from loss.

You may transfer your right to use CircuitMaker to another party as long as the entire
software package, including the manual and a backup copy of CircuitMaker, are transferred
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agree to be bound by the terms and conditions of this agreement. If you transfer the
program, you must remove CircuitMaker from the computer on which it is installed and
destroy the backup copy at the time of transfer. Your licence terminates at the time of
transfer. In no case is the right granted to sell, distribute, trade or give away copies of
CircuitMaker, except as stated in this paragraph.

You may not de-compile, disassemble, reverse engineer, or in any way modify the program
code without the prior written consent of MicroCode Engineering.

This agreement is effective until terminated. You may terminate this agreement at any time by
destroying the program, documentation, and any the backup copy, or by returning the same
to MicroCode Engineering. The licence will terminate automatically if the terms of this
agreement are violated.
The program code is provided on an “as is” basis without warranty of any kind whatsoever,
either expressed or implied. MicroCode Engineering does not warrant the software to be error
free, nor does it warrant it to meet your specific requirements.
License Agreement iv
MicroCode Engineering will, at no charge, replace defective CDs/diskettes or CDs/diskettes that
are returned within ninety (90) days of the date of purchase. MicroCode Engineering warrants
that the program will perform in substantial compliance with the enclosed documentation. If you
report a significant defect in writing to MicroCode Engineering, and MicroCode Engineering is
unable to correct it within ninety (90) days, you may return the entire software package for a
refund. Under no conditions will MicroCode Engineering’s liability exceed the purchase price of
this software.
NO LIABILITY OF ANY FORM SHALL BE ASSUMED BY MICROCODE ENGINEERING OR ITS
REPRESENTATIVES, NOR SHALL DIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR OTHER DAMAGES BE
ASSUMED BY MICROCODE ENGINEERING, EVEN IF MICROCODE ENGINEERING HAS BEEN
ADVISED OF SUCH DAMAGES.
Disclaimer
CircuitMaker is a simulation program that, in most cases, produces results very similar to a real
life circuit. It is, however, only a simulation program and is not expected to provide exactly the
same results as a real life circuit in every instance. While MicroCode Engineering, Inc. has tried
to provide a product which is suitable to a wide variety of applications, we realize that it cannot
produce satisfactory results in all applications. CircuitMaker allows you to minimize the amount
of breadboarding required to produce a functional circuit, but it must not be used as a replace-
ment for proper breadboarding.
MicroCode Engineering, Inc. reserves the right to revise the program and/or manual from time to
time without obligation of MicroCode Engineering, Inc. to notify any person or organization of
such change or revision. MicroCode Engineering, Inc. makes no representations or warranties
with respect to the program “CircuitMaker” or the manual, either express or implied, including
implied warranty of merchantability or implied fitness for a particular purpose. No liability of any
form shall be assumed by MicroCode Engineering, Inc. or its representatives, nor shall direct,
consequential, or other damages be assumed by MicroCode Engineering, Inc. even if MicroCode
Engineering, Inc. has been advised of such damages. This program is supplied “As Is”. Any
user of this software uses it at their own risk. In any case, the liability of MicroCode Engineering,
Inc. is limited to the price the user actually paid.
License Agreement v
U.S. Government Restricted Provisions
If this software is acquired by or in behalf of a unit or agency of the United States Government
these provisions apply. This Software:
(a) Was developed at private expense, and no part of it was developed with government funds,
(b) Is a trade secret of MicroCode Engineering, Inc. for all purposes of the Freedom of Informa-
tion Act,
(c) Is “commercial computer software” subject to limited utilization as provided in the contract
between the vendor and the governmental entity, and
(d) In all respects is proprietary data belonging solely to MicroCode Engineering, Inc.
For units of the Department of Defense (DOD), this software is sold only with “Restricted
Rights” as that term is defined in the DOD Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulations,
52.227-7013 (c) (1) (ii) and:
Use, duplication or disclosure is subject to restrictions as set forth in subdivision (c) (1) (ii) of
the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at 52.227-7013. Manufacturer:
MicroCode Engineering, Inc., 927 West Center Street, Orem, Utah 84057.
If this software was acquired under a GSA Schedule, the U.S. Government has agreed to refrain
from changing or removing any insignia or lettering from the Software or the accompanying
written materials that are provided or from producing copies of the manuals or disks (except one
copy for backup purposes) and:
(e) Title to and ownership of this Software and documentation and any reproductions thereof
shall remain with MicroCode Engineering, Inc.,
(f) Use of this Software and documentation shall be limited to the facility for which it is acquired,
and
(g) If use of the Software is discontinued by the installation specified in the purchase/delivery
order and the U.S. Government desires to use it at another location, it may do so by giving prior
written notice to MicroCode Engineering, Inc., specifying the type of computer and new location
site. U.S. Governmental personnel using this Software, other than under a DOD contract or GSA
Schedule, are hereby on notice that use of this Software is subject to restrictions which are the
same or similar to those specified above.
License Agreement vi
Contents vii
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Welcome to CircuitMaker
Introduction............................................................................................1-1
Required User Background..................................................................................
1-1
Required Hardware/Software................................................................................
1-1
Installing CircuitMaker...........................................................................1-2
Installing the Hardware (HW) Keys......................................................................
1-2
Updating from a Previous Version.........................................................................
1-3
Multi-User (Project) Installations..........................................................................
1-6
Technical Support..................................................................................1-8
About the Documentation......................................................................1-9
Manual Conventions.............................................................................................
1-9
Using Online Help..............................................................................................
1-10
Watching the Online Tutorial..............................................................................
1-11
Where to Go from Here......................................................................................
1-11
Chapter 2: Getting Started
CircuitMaker Basics..............................................................................2-1
Starting CircuitMaker...........................................................................................
2-1
CircuitMaker Workspace.....................................................................................
2-1
Connectivity.........................................................................................................
2-2
About CircuitMaker Windows...............................................................................
2-2
Anatomy of a Schematic Drawing........................................................................
2-3
CircuitMaker Conventions....................................................................................
2-3
CircuitMaker Files................................................................................................
2-3
Accessing Tools and Features..............................................................2-4
Task Overview......................................................................................................
2-4
Using the Toolbar.................................................................................................
2-4
Using the Mouse.................................................................................................
2-6
HotKeys..............................................................................................................
2-7
Shortcut Keys.....................................................................................................
2-7
Contents viii
CircuitMaker Preferences.....................................................................2-8
Changing Preferences..........................................................................................
2-8
Restoring Factory Defaults..................................................................................
2-8
Basic .CKT File Management...............................................................2-9
Starting, Saving & Closing a .CKT File.................................................................
2-9
Opening and Reopening a .CKT File..................................................................
2-10
Reverting to Previously Saved File.....................................................................
2-10
Chapter 3: Tutorials
Tutorial 1: Drawing a Schematic............................................................3-1
Using the Device Selection Dialog Box................................................................
3-1
Selecting a Transistor..........................................................................................
3-3
Selecting the Resistors........................................................................................
3-3
Selecting +V and Ground Devices.......................................................................
3-4
Changing Resistor/Transistor Label-Values..........................................................
3-5
Wiring the Circuit Together...................................................................................
3-5
Tutorial 2: Simulating a Digital Circuit....................................................3-6
Tutorial 3: Analog Analysis....................................................................3-7
Simple Circuit Analysis........................................................................................
3-8
Creating a Simple RC Circuit.............................................................................
3-10
Simulating a Simple AC Circuit..........................................................................
3-12
Tutorial 4: More Circuit Simulation.......................................................3-13
Setting Up the Analysis.....................................................................................
3-16
Running the Simulation......................................................................................
3-17
Mixed-Mode Simulation Example.......................................................................
3-20
Chapter 4: Drawing and Editing Schematics
Drawing and Editing Tools.....................................................................4-1
Arrow Tool............................................................................................................
4-2
Wire Tool.............................................................................................................
4-2
Text Tool..............................................................................................................
4-2
Delete Tool...........................................................................................................
4-2
Zoom Tool............................................................................................................
4-3
Contents ix
Rotate 90 Button .................................................................................................
4-3
Mirror Button........................................................................................................
4-4
Grid, Title Block and Borders.................................................................4-4
Grid .....................................................................................................................
4-4
Title Block ...........................................................................................................
4-5
Borders................................................................................................................
4-6
Listing and Selecting Devices ...............................................................4-7
The Graphical Parts Browser ...............................................................................
4-7
HotKeys ..............................................................................................................
4-9
Searching for Devices ........................................................................................
4-10
Placing Devices ..................................................................................4-12
Selecting Devices ..............................................................................................
4-12
Nudging Devices ................................................................................................
4-13
Wiring the Circuit.................................................................................4-14
Auto Routing......................................................................................................
4-14
Manual Routing..................................................................................................
4-15
Quick Connect Wiring........................................................................................
4-16
Extending, Joining, and Cutting Wires ...............................................................
4-16
Moving Devices with Connected Wires ...............................................................
4-17
Working with Bus Wires ......................................................................4-17
Working with Bus Connection Wires..................................................................
4-18
"Wiring" with Connectors.....................................................................4-19
Input and Output Connectors .............................................................................
4-19
Terminal Device Power Connections ...................................................4-20
Labeling the Circuit .............................................................................4-21
Using the Text Tool to Label ...............................................................................
4-21
Changing Device Labels .....................................................................................
4-21
Editing Devices...................................................................................4-22
Device................................................................................................................
4-22
Label-Value ........................................................................................................
4-23
Designation........................................................................................................
4-23
Description ........................................................................................................
4-24
Package ............................................................................................................
4-24
Auto Designation Prefix .....................................................................................
4-24
Spice Prefix Character(s) ...................................................................................
4-24
Analog ...............................................................................................................
4-25
Contents x
Digital................................................................................................................
4-25
Parameters........................................................................................................
4-26
Bus Data...........................................................................................................
4-26
Spice Data.........................................................................................................
4-28
Example of Using SPICE Data...........................................................................
4-30
Exclude from PCB.............................................................................................
4-31
Exclude from Bill of Materials.............................................................................
4-31
Pins...................................................................................................................
4-31
Faults................................................................................................................
4-33
Printing and Exporting Circuits............................................................4-33
Printing Circuits.................................................................................................
4-33
Exporting Circuits as Graphics..........................................................................
4-34
Chapter 5: Digital Logic Simulation
CircuitMaker's Simulation Modes..........................................................5-1
Devices and Simulation........................................................................................
5-2
Using the Digital Logic Simulator..........................................................5-2
Digital Logic Simulation Tools...............................................................5-3
Digital/Analog Button...........................................................................................
5-3
Reset Button........................................................................................................
5-3
Step Button.........................................................................................................
5-4
Run/Stop Button..................................................................................................
5-4
Probe Tool...........................................................................................................
5-4
Trace Button........................................................................................................
5-5
Waveforms Button...............................................................................................
5-5
Propagation Delays.............................................................................................
5-6
Digital Waveforms................................................................................................
5-7
Digital Options......................................................................................5-8
Setting Breakpoints in a Circuit...........................................................................
5-9
Digital Instruments.................................................................................5-9
Pulser..................................................................................................................
5-9
Data Sequencer.................................................................................................
5-10
Pattern Editor....................................................................................................
5-12
Contents xi
Chapter 6: Analog/Mixed-Signal Simulation
CircuitMaker's Simulation Modes..........................................................6-1
Devices and Simulation........................................................................6-2
Overview of Analog Simulation..............................................................6-2
Before You Use the Analog Simulator..................................................................
6-2
Setting Up Analog Analysis.................................................................................
6-3
Selecting Analog Simulation Mode......................................................................
6-3
Analog Simulation Tools........................................................................6-3
Digital/Analog Button...........................................................................................
6-4
Reset Button.......................................................................................................
6-4
Step Button.........................................................................................................
6-4
Run/Stop Button..................................................................................................
6-4
Probe Tool...........................................................................................................
6-5
Trace Button........................................................................................................
6-6
Waveforms Button...............................................................................................
6-6
Vcc and Ground....................................................................................6-6
Working with Test Points.......................................................................6-7
Test Point Types..................................................................................................
6-8
Default Test Points...............................................................................................
6-8
Exclusive Test Points..........................................................................................
6-8
Run-Time Test Points..........................................................................................
6-9
Running the Simulation........................................................................6-11
Using the Analysis Windows................................................................6-11
Displaying Waveforms.......................................................................................
6-12
Scaling Waveforms............................................................................................
6-13
Offsetting Waveforms.........................................................................................
6-15
Using Measurement Cursors..............................................................................
6-15
Setup Button.....................................................................................................
6-15
Reset Button.....................................................................................................
6-17
Setting Up Analog Analyses................................................................6-18
Always Set Defaults..........................................................................................
6-18
DC Analysis (DC Sweep)...................................................................................
6-19
AC Analysis (AC Sweep)...................................................................................
6-20
DC Operating Point Analysis.............................................................................
6-22
Transient Analysis.............................................................................................
6-21
Contents xii
Parameter Sweep Analysis................................................................................
6-26
Fourier Analysis.................................................................................................
6-29
Transfer Function Analysis................................................................................
6-30
Noise Analysis..................................................................................................
6-32
Temperature Sweep Analysis.............................................................................
6-35
Monte Carlo Analysis........................................................................................
6-36
Impedance Plot Analysis...................................................................................
6-41
Using XSpice for Windows..................................................................6-43
.NET and .RAW File Output...............................................................................
6-45
Warning Messages vs. Error Messages.............................................................
6-46
Setting Up Analog/SPICE Variables....................................................6-47
ASCIIOUTPUT Check Box.................................................................................
6-47
DVCC, DVDD and DGND...................................................................................
6-48
Integration Method.............................................................................................
6-48
Analysis Data Saved in .RAW File.....................................................................
6-48
Analog/Mixed Signal Instruments.........................................................6-49
Multimeter.........................................................................................................
6-49
Multifunction Signal Generator...........................................................................
6-50
Accessing the Signal Generator Editor..................................................................
6-51
Editing Sine Wave Data..........................................................................................
6-52
Editing AM Signal Data...........................................................................................
6-54
Editing FM Signal Data...........................................................................................
6-55
Editing Exponential Data........................................................................................
6-56
Editing Pulse Data..................................................................................................
6-57
Editing Piece-Wise Data.........................................................................................
6-58
Data Sequencer.................................................................................................
6-59
Chapter 7: Exporting Files
Bill of Materials.....................................................................................7-1
Single Item Per Line............................................................................................
7-2
Multiple Items Per Line........................................................................................
7-3
Saving, Displaying, and Printing the Bill of Materials............................................
7-3
Including Attributes..............................................................................................
7-4
Creating an Attribute File.....................................................................................
7-4
Setting Up Export Options.....................................................................7-7
Exporting Waveforms as Graphics........................................................7-8
Contents xiii
Exporting Circuits as Graphics..............................................................7-8
Exporting a SPICE Netlist.....................................................................7-9
Exporting a SPICE Subcircuit................................................................7-9
Exporting a PCB Netlist......................................................................7-10
What is a Net?..................................................................................................
7-10
What is a Netlist?..............................................................................................
7-10
PCB Netlist Requirements.................................................................................
7-10
Exporting to Popular PCB Netlist Formats.........................................................
7-11
TraxMaker PCB Netlist Format..........................................................................
7-12
CircuitMaker to TraxMaker..................................................................7-13
Run TraxMaker and Load Netlist........................................................................
7-14
Create Keep-Out Layer......................................................................................
7-14
Board Size in Mils.............................................................................................
7-14
Automatically Place Components......................................................................
7-14
Chapter 8: Fault Simulation
Device Faults........................................................................................8-1
Pin(s) Stuck High................................................................................................
8-1
Pin(s) Stuck Low.................................................................................................
8-1
Pin(s) Open.........................................................................................................
8-2
Adding Device Faults............................................................................8-3
Enable Device Faults...........................................................................................
8-3
Fault Label-Value.................................................................................................
8-3
Faults and Device Pins........................................................................................
8-3
Internal High/Low Check Boxes...........................................................................
8-4
Hint Message......................................................................................................
8-4
Fault Password....................................................................................................
8-4
Using the Access Faults Dialog Box......................................................8-5
Managing Circuit Faults........................................................................8-6
Disable Circuit Options........................................................................................
8-6
Hints and Replacements......................................................................................
8-9
Circuit Default Values..........................................................................................
8-9
Fault Lock Password.........................................................................................
8-10
Creating Black Box Macros...............................................................................
8-10
Fault Example...................................................................................................
8-11
Contents xiv
Chapter 9: File Menu
New......................................................................................................9-1
Open.....................................................................................................9-1
Reopen.................................................................................................9-1
Merge...................................................................................................9-1
Close....................................................................................................9-2
Save.....................................................................................................9-2
Save As................................................................................................9-2
Revert...................................................................................................9-2
Import > Simulate SPICE Netlist............................................................9-2
Export...................................................................................................9-3
Bill of Materials.....................................................................................9-3
Print Setup............................................................................................9-3
Fit to Page...........................................................................................................
9-4
Print Circuit...........................................................................................9-4
Print Waveforms....................................................................................9-4
Preferences..........................................................................................9-4
Exit.....................................................................................................9-10
Chapter 10: Edit Menu
Undo...................................................................................................10-1
Cut......................................................................................................10-1
Copy...................................................................................................10-1
Paste..................................................................................................10-1
Move...................................................................................................10-1
Delete Items........................................................................................10-2
Duplicate............................................................................................10-2
Copy Circuit to Clipboard....................................................................10-2
Copy Waveforms to Clipboard............................................................10-2
Select All.............................................................................................10-3
Find and Select...................................................................................10-3
Rotate 90............................................................................................10-3
Mirror..................................................................................................10-4
Straighten Wires.................................................................................10-4
Place Labels.......................................................................................10-4
Contents xv
Set Prop Delays..................................................................................10-4
Set Designations................................................................................10-5
Edit > Edit Items..................................................................................10-6
Edit Bus Connection..........................................................................................
10-6
Edit Bus Wire Number.......................................................................................
10-7
Edit Device Data................................................................................................
10-7
Edit Digital Params............................................................................................
10-7
Edit Run-Time Test Point...................................................................................
10-7
Edit/Select SPICE Model...................................................................................
10-7
Edit PROM/RAM...............................................................................................
10-8
Edit Pulser.........................................................................................................
10-8
Edit Multimeter..................................................................................................
10-9
Edit Input/Output...............................................................................................
10-9
Edit Data Sequencer..........................................................................................
10-9
Edit Signal Generator.....................................................................................
10-10
Edit Scope/Probe Name.................................................................................
10-10
Group Items......................................................................................10-10
Font..................................................................................................10-11
Chapter 11: Macros Menu
New Macro..........................................................................................11-1
Edit Macro..........................................................................................11-1
Save Macro........................................................................................11-2
Expand Macro.....................................................................................11-2
Macro Lock.........................................................................................11-3
Macro Utilities.....................................................................................11-4
Save Macro.......................................................................................................
11-4
Class Selected Device.......................................................................................
11-5
Expand Macro...................................................................................................
11-5
Delete Macro.....................................................................................................
11-5
Model Data........................................................................................................
11-6
Macro Copier......................................................................................11-6
Save ASCII Library..............................................................................11-7
Convert ASCII Library..........................................................................11-7
Update Search List.............................................................................11-8
Contents xvi
Chapter 12: Options Menu
Auto Repeat........................................................................................12-1
Auto Refresh.......................................................................................12-1
Device Designations...........................................................................12-1
Arrow/Wire..........................................................................................12-2
Cursor Tools........................................................................................12-2
Show Pin Dots....................................................................................12-2
Show Bus Labels................................................................................12-3
Show Page Breaks.............................................................................12-3
Moveable Page Breaks......................................................................................
12-3
Show Node Numbers..........................................................................12-3
Show Prop Delays..............................................................................12-3
Device Display Data...........................................................................12-4
Circuit Display Data............................................................................12-4
Grid....................................................................................................12-5
Title Block...........................................................................................12-5
Border................................................................................................12-7
Chapter 13: View & Window Menus
View Menu..........................................................................................13-1
Toolbar...............................................................................................................
13-1
Colors................................................................................................................
13-1
Display Scale....................................................................................................
13-2
Normal Size/Position.........................................................................................
13-3
Fit Circuit to Window.........................................................................................
13-3
Refresh Screen..................................................................................................
13-3
Window Menu.....................................................................................13-3
Cascade Windows.............................................................................................
13-3
Tile Windows.....................................................................................................
13-3
Windows............................................................................................................
13-3
Contents xvii
Chapter 14: Simulation Menu
Digital/Analog Mode...........................................................................14-1
Analyses Setup...................................................................................14-1
Digital Options....................................................................................14-1
Pin Connections..................................................................................14-1
Reset..................................................................................................14-1
Step....................................................................................................14-2
Run.....................................................................................................14-2
Trace..................................................................................................14-2
Display Waveforms.............................................................................14-2
Scope Probe......................................................................................14-2
Display Variable Names......................................................................14-2
Chapter 15: SPICE: Beyond the Basics
Troubleshooting SPICE Convergence.................................................15-1
Solving Operating Point Analysis Failures..........................................................
15-2
Solving DC Analysis Failures.............................................................................
15-3
Solving Transient Analysis Failures....................................................................
15-4
SPICE Option Variables......................................................................15-5
SPICE's Elementary Devices............................................................15-13
Resistors........................................................................................................
15-13
Semiconductor Resistors................................................................................
15-13
Capacitors......................................................................................................
15-14
Semiconductor Capacitors..............................................................................
15-15
Inductors.........................................................................................................
15-15
Coupled (Mutual) Inductors.............................................................................
15-16
Voltage/Current Controlled Switches...............................................................
15-17
Independent Sources......................................................................................
15-17
Linear Voltage-Controlled Current Sources......................................................
15-19
Linear Voltage-Controlled Voltage Sources......................................................
15-19
Linear Current-Controlled Current Sources......................................................
15-20
Linear Current-Controlled Voltage Sources......................................................
15-20
Non-Linear Dependent Sources......................................................................
15-21
Contents xviii
Lossless Transmission Lines..........................................................................
15-22
Lossy Transmission Lines..............................................................................
15-23
Uniform Distributed RC Lines (Lossy).............................................................
15-24
Junction Diodes..............................................................................................
15-24
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs).................................................................
15-25
Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFETs)........................................................
15-25
MOSFETs.......................................................................................................
15-26
MESFETs (GaAsFETs)...................................................................................
15-27
SimCode
TM
Devices........................................................................................
15-28
.NODESET Statement....................................................................................
15-28
.IC Statement.................................................................................................
15-28
Suggested Reading..........................................................................15-30
Chapter 16: Creating New Devices
What’s In This Chapter?......................................................................16-1
Creating Device Symbols....................................................................16-2
Using Symbol Editor Display Controls...............................................................
16-3
Drawing a Symbol with the Mouse.....................................................................
16-4
Selecting Shapes..............................................................................................
16-5
Adding an Existing Shape..................................................................................
16-6
Importing a Metafile Device................................................................................
16-7
Adding DIP, LCC, and QFP Packages...............................................................
16-7
Editing Pin Information.......................................................................................
16-8
Element List and Edit Buffer..............................................................................
16-9
Element Definitions.........................................................................................
16-10
Tutorial: Creating a Device Symbol...................................................16-14
Expanding an Existing Macro Device................................................16-17
Creating Macro Devices with Internal Circuitry...................................16-19
Working with SPICE Models.............................................................16-21
Editing SPICE Models with a Text Editor........................................................
16-21
Editing SPICE Models in CircuitMaker............................................................
16-22
Editing SPICE Subcircuits..............................................................................
16-27
Model and Subcircuit Linking Files.................................................................
16-32
Contents xix
Creating New SPICE Models with Parameter Passing......................16-37
General Form (Generic Model)........................................................................
16-37
General Form (Alias).......................................................................................
16-37
Editing Digital Model Parameters.....................................................16-39
Chapter 17: Digital SimCode
TM
Creating New SimCode Devices........................................................17-2
The 74LS74 Example........................................................................................
17-4
Editing Device Data for SimCode Devices.........................................17-8
SimCode Language Definition..........................................................17-10
Device Setup Functions..................................................................................
17-10
Device Test Functions.....................................................................................
17-10
Output Pin Functions.......................................................................................
17-11
Expression Operations....................................................................................
17-11
Expression Functions.....................................................................................
17-12
Program Control..............................................................................................
17-13
Output Text.....................................................................................................
17-13
Debug.............................................................................................................
17-13
SimCode Language Syntax..............................................................17-14
#xxxxsource...................................................................................................
17-14
CHANGE_TIME..............................................................................................
17-15
CHANGED_xx................................................................................................
17-15
DELAY...........................................................................................................
17-16
DRIVE............................................................................................................
17-18
EVENT...........................................................................................................
17-20
EXIT................................................................................................................
17-20
EXT_TABLE....................................................................................................
17-21
FREQUENCY (FMAX)....................................................................................
17-23
GOSUB..........................................................................................................
17-24
GOTO.............................................................................................................
17-24
IF ... THEN.....................................................................................................
17-25
INPUTS..........................................................................................................
17-26
INSTANCE......................................................................................................
17-27
INTEGERS.....................................................................................................
17-28
IO_PAIRS.......................................................................................................
17-30
Contents xx
LEVEL............................................................................................................
17-31
LOAD .............................................................................................................
17-32
MATH FUNCTIONS.........................................................................................
17-34
MESSAGE .....................................................................................................
17-35
MIN_TYP_MAX ...............................................................................................
17-36
NO_CHANGE .................................................................................................
17-39
NUMBER........................................................................................................
17-39
OPERATORS .................................................................................................
17-40
OUTPUTS .......................................................................................................
17-41
PARAM_SET..................................................................................................
17-42
PROMPT ........................................................................................................
17-43
PWL_TABLE ..................................................................................................
17-45
PWR_GND_PINS ...........................................................................................
17-46
READ_DATA...................................................................................................
17-47
REALS ...........................................................................................................
17-48
RECOVER......................................................................................................
17-50
RETURN .........................................................................................................
17-51
SELECT_VALUE ............................................................................................
17-51
SETUP_HOLD ................................................................................................
17-52
STATE ............................................................................................................
17-53
STATE_BIT .....................................................................................................
17-55
STEP_OFF .....................................................................................................
17-56
STEP_ON.......................................................................................................
17-56
STRENGTH ....................................................................................................
17-57
SUPPLY_MIN_MAX ........................................................................................
17-58
TABLE ............................................................................................................
17-59
VALUE ...........................................................................................................
17-60
VIL_VIH_PERCENT ........................................................................................
17-61
VIL_VIH_VALUE .............................................................................................
17-62
VOL_VOH_MIN ..............................................................................................
17-63
WHILE ... DO .................................................................................................
17-64
WIDTH ............................................................................................................
17-65
WIDTH_TIME ..................................................................................................
17-66
Index
Chapter 1: Welcome to CircuitMaker 1-21
C H A P T E R 1
Introduction
Welcome to CircuitMaker, the most powerful, easy-to-use
schematic capture and simulation tool in its class! Thank
you for joining thousands of users who have discovered
that CircuitMaker provides the features of "high-end"
design software at a fraction of the cost.
Using CircuitMaker's advanced schematic capabilities, you
can design electronic circuits and output netlists for
TraxMaker and other PCB design tools and autorouters. You
can also perform fast, accurate simulations of digital, analog
and mixed analog/digital circuits using CircuitMaker's
Berkeley SPICE3f5/XSpice-based simulator.
Required User Background
With just a minimum of electronics theory, you can success-
fully use CircuitMaker to design and simulate circuits. For
beginners, CircuitMaker is perfect for learning and experi-
menting with electronics and circuit design. For advanced
users, CircuitMaker's powerful analyses provide a sophisti-
cated environment for testing and trying all the "what if"
scenarios for your design. Best of all, you can accomplish
more in less time than traditional prototyping methods.
Required Hardware/Software

IBM
®
compatible 486 or higher PC with a hard disk drive
and a 3½” high density disk drive.

Math coprocessor recommended (for analog simula-
tion).

8M RAM, 15M hard disk space (20M during installa-
tion).

Mouse or other pointing device.

VGA (or higher) resolution monitor (color preferred).
Welcome to CircuitMaker
Chapter 1: Welcome to CircuitMaker 1-22

Microsoft
®
Windows 95, Windows NT 4.0 or greater or
Windows 3.1x (requires Win32s, a set of operating
system extensions which allows some 32-bit applica-
tions to run under the 16-bit operating system).
Installing CircuitMaker
1 Start your Windows operating system.
2 If you are installing from the CircuitMaker CD, insert it
into the CD drive and skip to Step 5.
OR
If you are installing with floppy disks, insert Disk 1 into
drive A: and continue with Step 3.
3 If using Windows 95 or NT4, choose Start > Run from
the Taskbar.
OR
If using Windows 3.1x, choose File > Run from Program
Manager.
4 Type a:setup and press Enter.
5 Follow the installation instructions.
Warning: If you are reinstalling or upgrading
CircuitMaker be sure to install in a different directory to
avoid writing over some of your existing work.
If you are installing under Windows 3.1x, you will be
prompted to install the Win32s operating system
extensions.
6 Double-click the CircuitMaker icon to launch the
program.
7 If you are upgrading from an earlier version of
CircuitMaker, see the next section Updating from a
Previous Version.
Installing the Hardware (HW) Keys
Most copies of CircuitMaker sold internationally (outside
the US and Canada) come with a Hardware (HW) key for
copy protection. If your copy includes a HW key, this key
must be attached to the parallel port of your computer in
Chapter 1: Welcome to CircuitMaker 1-23
order to run the software. If you have any questions, please
call MicroCode Engineering Technical Support.
Updating from a Previous Version
While upgrading from a previous version of CircuitMaker is
a relatively painless process, you should take care when
converting custom macro libraries and simulating existing
circuits. When you load a pre-4.0 circuit file (identified by
the .CIR extension), it will automatically be converted to the
newer ASCII file format (which uses the .CKT extension).
If you have not added components to the library, simply
follow the instructions above in Installing CircuitMaker.
The new version will be installed in a new directory and you
can delete the previous directory.
If you have added new device symbols to the macro library,
see Updating 32-bit Macro Libraries or Updating 16-bit
Macro Libraries below.
If you have added new SPICE models, see Updating Model
Libraries below.
Warning: Be careful not to discard or overwrite your
previous work.
Updating 32-Bit Macro Libraries
If you are upgrading from a 32-bit version of CircuitMaker
and have created your own macro devices or symbols,
follow these steps:
1 Install the new version of CircuitMaker as described
earlier. Remember to install the new version in a different
directory to avoid writing over your existing work. Run
CircuitMaker.
2 Select Macros > Macro Copier.
3 Open the old USER.LIB file as the Copy From file.
When asked if you want to list only the user defined
devices, click Yes.
4 Open the USER.LIB file from your new CircuitMaker
directory as the Copy To file.
5 Select the first device that you have created and click on
the Copy button. Repeat for each additional device that
Chapter 1: Welcome to CircuitMaker 1-24
you have created. Each device copied will be placed in
the new USER.LIB file. You may be prompted for
information regarding the simulation mode for which a
device is intended. If the device can be used in digital
simulations, check the Digital box; if it can be used in
analog simulations, check the Analog box. If it can be
used in either simulation mode, check both boxes.
Updating 16-Bit Macro Libraries
If you are upgrading from a 16-bit version of CircuitMaker
and have created your own macro devices or symbols,
follow these steps:
1 Install the new version of CircuitMaker as described
earlier. Be sure to install the new version into a different
directory to avoid writing over your existing work.
2 Run the BTOA file conversion utility.
3 Select File > Convert Library. Open the USER.LIB file
from your previous CircuitMaker directory. Save the
new file as USERLIB.ASC.
4 Run CircuitMaker.
5 Select Macros > Convert ASCII Library. Load the file
USERLIB.ASC that you just created. Save the new file
as NEWUSER.LIB.
6 Select Macros > Macro Copier.
7 Open the NEWUSER.LIB file as the Copy From file.
When asked if you want to list only the user defined
devices, click Yes.
8 Open the USER.LIB file from your new CircuitMaker
directory as the Copy To file.
9 Select the first device that you created and click on the
Copy button. Repeat for each additional device that you
have created. Each device copied will be placed in the
new USER.LIB file. You may be prompted for informa-
tion regarding the simulation mode for which a device is
intended. If the device can be used in digital simula-
tions, check the Digital box; if it can be used in analog
simulations, check the Analog box. If it can be used in
either simulation mode, check both boxes.
Chapter 1: Welcome to CircuitMaker 1-25
Note: Importing of bitmaps and unconverted metafiles is no
longer supported for creating devices in CircuitMaker. If you
have created devices of this type, the symbol will not be
available in CircuitMaker 6 or PRO (the symbol will be
replaced by a rectangle). These symbols may be redrawn
with the Symbol Editor.
Updating Model Libraries
If you have added or modified any of the .MOD, .SUB or
.LIB files from a previous version, you must make these same
additions or modifications to the files in the new Models
directory. Since many of these .MOD, .SUB and .LIB files in
CircuitMaker 6/PRO contain new information added by
MicroCode Engineering, it is recommended that any
changes you made previously be done manually (don't just
copy your old file over the top of the new one), to avoid any
possible loss of data.
If you have created any user-defined symbols to which
SPICE models have been linked, you must remember that
each of these user-defined symbols has a corresponding
.MOD or .SUB file. Be sure to copy these files into the new
Models directory.
If you have used CircuitMaker's automatic linking feature
(accessed throught the Model Data button in Macro Utilities
dialog box) to link a symbol to a user-added SPICE model in
a .LIB file, you must do one of two things:
1 Reenter the information using the Macro Utilities dialog
box just like before.
OR
2 Copy the linking information that was automatically
placed in the .MOD or .SUB files into the new files. This
information would usually be located at the end of the
.MOD or .SUB file that corresponds to the symbol.
Updating Pre-5.0 Digital Circuits for
Analog Simulation
Digital circuits created in pre-5.0 versions of CircuitMaker
will still run in Digital Logic Simulation mode. However, if
you want to run them in Analog Simulation mode, you
should be aware of the following: