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Focus on English English Placement Test (EPT) 2009 Edition pdf

English Placement Test
(EPT)
2009 Edition
Focus on English



Table of Contents


College Readiness for All at the California State University 1
The English Placement Test at the California State University 2
English Placement Test – Design 3
English Placement Test – Score Reporting 11
How Teachers can Help Students Prepare for the English Placement Test 12
Sample Essays and Commentaries 17
Sample Essay Prompts 24
Appendix A: Alignment of EPT and Content Standards
Appendix B: Sample Score Report and Interpretation of Result







For Further Information Please See:
General Website for the Early Assessment Program (EAP):
www.calstate.edu/eap
Overview of the EAP program, tests scores, and test blueprints.

CSU English Success Website:
www.csu.englishsuccess.org
Information for students, parents, counselors, and teachers on the EAP, the EPT, student personalized
road maps, and other advising features for all 23 CSU campuses.


This publication may be downloaded from
www.calstate.edu/sas/documents/focusonenglish.pdf.

Additional questions concerning CSU admission requirements in English should be directed to Mr.
Allison Jones, Student Academic Support, 401 Golden Shore, 6
th
Floor, Long Beach, CA 90802-4210.
Telephone: (562) 951-4744.

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College Readiness for All at the California State University

Increasing student access to and success in the California State University (CSU) system is one
of the primary goals of Access to Excellence, the strategic plan adopted by the CSU Board of
Trustees in 2008. College readiness for first-time freshmen is critical if the CSU is to meet the
workforce and economic needs of the state. To ensure student success, the CSU has
implemented a number of strategies, such as the Early Assessment Program (EAP), the Entry
Level Mathematics Test (ELM), and the English Placement Test (EPT), to properly place
students in the appropriate college courses.

The Early Assessment Program is a nationally recognized collaboration involving the State
Board of Education (SBE), the California Department of Education (CDE), and the California
State University (CSU). The California County Superintendent Education Services Association
(CCSESA) is also a collaborator in the area of professional development. The EAP provides an
opportunity for students to learn about their readiness for college-level English and mathematics
in their junior year of high school, and it facilitates opportunities for them to improve their skills
during their senior year.

Those students who are admitted to the CSU and have not demonstrated proficiency in English
or math in their senior year of high school take the English Placement Test (EPT) and the Entry
Level Math Test (ELM) as a way of ensuring they are placed in the appropriate classes upon
enrollment in the university. All campuses are committed to implementing effective practices to
guide and support first time freshman in attaining college level proficiency. The system has
created an English Success and a Math Success website to provide students, parents, teachers,
counselors, and testing coordinators further information regarding these requirements. The
websites can be found at: http://www.csuenglishsuccess.org for English and
www.csumathsuccess.org for mathematics.

This brochure provides information on how students demonstrate proficiency in English and
more specifically about the English Placement Test (EPT). Another brochure, Focus on
Mathematics, available online at www.calstate.edu/sas/documents/focusonmath.pdf, provides
information about the math assessment test, the Entry Level Mathematics Test (ELM).














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The English Placement Test at the California State University


Nature and Purpose of the English Placement Test

The English Placement Test (EPT) is designed to assess the level of reading and writing skills of
students entering the California State University. The CSU EPT must be completed by all non-
exempt entering undergraduates prior to enrollment in any course, including remedial courses.
Students who score 147 or above on the EPT will be placed in college-level composition classes.

Exemptions from the EPT are granted only to those who present proof of one of the following:

• A score of 500 or above on the critical reading section of the College Board SAT
Reasoning Test
• A score of 22 or above on the American College Testing (ACT) English Test
• A score of 3 or above on either the Language and Composition or Composition and
Literature examination of the College Board Scholastic Advanced Placement Program
• Completion and transfer to CSU of the credits for a college course that satisfies the
CSU General Education requirement in English Composition, provided such a course
was completed with a grade of C or better
• A score of “Exempt” or “Ready for college-level English courses” on the CSU Early
Assessment Program (EAP) taken along with the English Language Arts California
Standard Test in grade 11


What is on the EPT?

 Essay - 45 minutes
 Reading Skills multiple-choice questions - 30 minutes
 Composing Skills multiple-choice questions - 30 minutes

When should students take the EPT?

Students should wait for the first scheduled test administration after they have been admitted
unless instructed differently by the campus that admits them. Students must satisfy the EPT
Requirement before they can enroll in college level English courses. At many campuses students
must satisfy the EPT Requirement before Summer Orientation.

How do students register for the EPT?

The EPT is administered at the CSU campuses. Students should refer to the EPT Testing Booklet
from the Educational Testing Services at www.ets.org/csu for more information on how to register.
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English Placement Test – Design

Once admitted, students are required to take the EPT at their earliest opportunity. The test must
be taken before enrollment in any classes at the CSU. Students will receive necessary
information and registration materials by mail, usually from the admission office of the campus
they plan to attend. Students may take the EPT only once and there is a nominal fee. The test is
offered on all CSU campuses a few times a year.

Students who do not demonstrate proficiency on the English Placement Test are required to
enroll in appropriate developmental programs/activities during the first term of enrollment and
each subsequent term until such time as they demonstrate proficiency. Such courses or programs
often do not earn credit toward the baccalaureate degree. Students must complete and pass all
developmental work during the first year of enrollment in the CSU.

Once a year, summaries of EPT aggregate student performance by high school are provided at
http://www.asd.calstate.edu/performance for those students who took the test and enrolled in the
CSU for the fall term. Companion data for the Entry Level Math (ELM) are also provided.

Because the EPT is designed to place students in appropriate classes that will help them succeed
in college-level work, it is not as difficult as some other English tests. The EPT is a placement
test, not an admission or achievement test. Ongoing evaluation of the EPT shows that it measures
students’ abilities accurately, and that it is useful to students and their advisers in selecting
appropriate courses and programs.

Essay Question—45 Minutes
The essay portion of the test requires students to read a brief passage in which an argument is
made or a position is taken.
Students are asked to analyze and explain the ideas presented in the passage, and then take a
position that they support by providing reasons and examples from their own experience,
observations, or reading.
Because the writing assignment requires students to analyze the passage’s ideas in developing
their own position on the subject, it integrates the critical reading and expository writing skills
that are essential to college-level work.
For example, students might first read a passage on how tobacco companies have agreed to settle
a lawsuit and give millions of dollars to the state. Students are then asked to explain how they
would choose to spend the money (for example, on health care for smokers or on an anti-
smoking campaign) and to support that position.

Assessment of Reading Skills—30 Minutes

Part A: Reading Comprehension

Students will be asked to analyze the ideas presented in brief passages (typically 100-150
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words). Students should be able to read critically in order to:
 identify important ideas
 understand direct statements
 draw inferences and conclusions
 detect underlying assumptions
 recognize word meanings in context
 respond to tone and connotation

Students may be asked to select the answer choice that best summarizes a passage, explains the
purpose of a passage, focuses on a specific detail, explains a word in context,
compares/contrasts two aspects of a passage, explains the implications or suggestions made in a
passage, identifies causal relationships, etc.

Directions: Each passage below is followed by questions based on its content. Answer all
questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.

Questions 1-3 are based on the following passage.

The search for a workable panacea is not new. Spanish explorers sought the Fountain of Youth.
Millions of Americans used to seek health and contentment in a patent medicine called Hadacol.
During the past two decades, however, more and more people have been turning to various
branches of psychology for magic solutions, hoping that psychology can take care of any
problem, cure the common cold, or solve the riddle of existence.

1. From the passage one can infer that the word “panacea” means
(A) utopia
(B) religion
(C) cure-all
(D) life style

2. According to the passage, what do the Fountain of Youth and Hadacol have in common?
(A) Neither really existed.
(B) Both brought their discoverers great fortunes.
(C) Both helped to end the search for magic solutions.
(D) Both were thought to have great power.

3. What does the passage call into question?
(A) People’s expectations of psychology
(B) People’s use of the lessons of history.
(C) The relationship between psychology and medicine.
(D) The legitimacy of the field of psychology.

Answer key: 1.C 2.D 3.A
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Part B: Vocabulary in Context

Students should be able to understand the meaning of a particular word or phrase in the context
of a sentence.

Students will be asked to consider grammatically similar words and choose the one that fits most
logically into each sentence in place of a nonsense word, “gliff.”

Directions: For each of the following questions, choose the best word or phrase to
substitute for the underlined portion containing gliff

, a nonsense word.
4. Though Mr. Rivera is a gliff
(A) an unhappy
man and could live anywhere he chooses, he still lives in the
small house in which he was born.
(B) a wealthy
(C) an ambitious
(D) a strong

5. The water looked fine for swimming but, in fact, the currents in the river were gliff
(A) contaminated
.
(B) soothing
(C) treacherous
(D) unnoticeable

6. Many of the problems we have with our natural resources could be gliffed
(A) avoided
if all of us did
what we could to conserve those resources.
(B) defined
(C) publicized
(D) understated

Answer key: 4.B 5.C 6.A













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Part C: Logical Relationships
Students should be able to read two related statements and understand the relationship between
them to see how
 they may contrast
 they may illustrate cause and effect
 they may contradict each other
 they may show cause and effect
 one may explain the other
 one may provide a more specific example to illustrate the other
 one may explain consequence
 one may clarify something implied by the other

Students will be asked to find exactly what the second sentence does in relation to the first and/or
how the two sentences relate to each other.

Directions: In each of the following questions, two underlined sentences have an implied
logical relationship. Read each pair of sentences and the question that follows, and then
choose the answer that identifies the relationship.

7. The Historic Dominguez Rancho Adobe, usually visited by those in search of tranquility,
became a political battleground.
In relation to the first sentence, what does the second sentence do?
The cities of Compton and Carson each claimed ownership of the estate.
(A) It makes a comparison.
(B) It provides factual support.
(C) It describes an inevitable result.
(D) It introduces a different point of view.

8.
In relation to the first sentence, what does the second sentence do?
Harry typically vacations in Tahoe. Two years ago, Harry spent his vacation in Madrid.
(A) It clarifies an assumption.
(B) It notes an exception.
(C) It adds emphasis.
(D) It draws a conclusion.

9.
In relation to the first sentence, what does the second sentence do?
Teresa has missed the last three practices of the dance step. She cannot perform the
maneuver.
(A) It states a consequence.
(B) It suggests a cause.
(C) It offers proof.
(D) It limits a preceding idea.

Answer key: 7.B 8.B 9.A
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Assessment of Composing Skills 30 Minutes

Part A: Construction Shift
Students should be able to rephrase a sentence by beginning with a different construction and
producing a new sentence that does not change the meaning of the original. These questions ask
students to
 find a more economical or effective way of phrasing a sentence
 find a more logical way of presenting a fact or idea
 provide appropriate emphasis
 achieve sentence variety

Students may be asked to spin out a sentence using an introductory phrase beginning with a
gerund or an adverb, etc; or to avoid slow starts, they may be asked to consider a more
appropriate noun phrase, or to consider a phrase that includes parenthetical information.
Directions: The following questions require you to rewrite sentences in your head. Each
question tells you exactly how to begin your new sentence. Your new sentence should have
the same meaning and contain the same information as the original sentence.

10. The student senate debated the issue for two hours and finally voted down the resolution.
Rewrite, beginning with Having debated the issue for two hours
The next word or words will be
, . . .
(A) the issue
(B) it
(C) the student senate
(D) a vote

11. The tree fell away from the house when it was struck by lightning.
Rewrite, beginning with Struck by lightning
The next words will be
, . . .
(A) It was when
(B) it fell when
(C) the tree fell
(D) and falling

12. Watson maintains that the worsening economic plight of the poor is reflected in the rising
unemployment rate.
Rewrite, beginning with Watson maintains that the rising unemployment rate
The next words will be
. . .
(A) reflects the
(B) and the plight of
(C) is what worsens
(D) is worse

Answer key: 10.C 11.C 12.A
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Part B: Sentence Correction

Students should be able to find the best way of correcting a sentence in order to resolve problems
of
 clarity
 sentence predication
 parallel structure
 subordination and coordination
 modification
 sentence boundaries

Students are asked to select the best way to phrase an underlined portion of a sentence. This
question type tests the students’ understanding of syntax, usage, and idiom rather than specific
knowledge of grammatical rules.
Directions: In each of the following questions, select the best version of the underlined part
of the sentence. Choice (A) is the same as the underlined portion of the original sentence. If
you think the original sentence is best, choose answer (A).
13. Ancient Greeks ate with their fingers, wiped them on pieces of bread, and tossed them
(A) tossed them
to the
dogs lying under the table.
(B) tossing them
(C) tossed the bread
(D) they tossed

14. Many doctors are now convinced of a fiber-rich diet reducing the risk of colon and
(A) of a fiber-rich diet reducing the risk of colon and heart diseases.
heart
diseases.
(B) of the risk of colon and heart diseases caused by a fiber-rich diet.
(C) that the reduction of the risk of colon and heart diseases caused by a fiber-rich diet.
(D) that a fiber-rich diet reduces the risk of colon and heart diseases.

15. Painters studied in Florence for the opportunity both to live in Italy and for seeing the art
(A) and for seeing the art treasures.
treasures.
(B) and to see the art treasures.
(C) as well as the art treasures to be seen.
(D) as well as seeing the art treasures.

Answer key: 13.C 14.D 15.B




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Part C: Missing Sentence
Students should be able to select an appropriate sentence that most logically

 begins a paragraph
 fits in the middle of a paragraph
 ends a paragraph

Students may be asked to find the most appropriate topic sentence (one that most successfully
generalizes what follows); to find the most appropriate middle sentence (adds specifics or
carries the paragraph forward in some way); or to find the sentence that logically concludes the
paragraph.
Directions: Each of the following questions presents a passage with a missing sentence
indicated by a series of dashes. Read each passage and the four sentences that follow it.
Then choose the sentence that can best be inserted in place of the long dash (———).

16. ———. Scholars hold differing opinions. Some trace the roots of Mexicans in the United
States all the way back to the earliest migrations across the Bering Strait. Others start with
Aztec society to demonstrate the historical continuities between contemporary Chicanos and
their Aztec ancestors. A third group identifies the “Spanish Borderlands” period (1540-1820)
as the earliest phase of Chicano history.
(A) When does Chicano history begin?
(B) There is continuing interest in Chicano history.
(C) Chicano history has fascinated scholars for many years.
(D) Few are concerned about setting a precise date for the origin of Chicano history.

17. Many Easterners think that all California college students surf every day, wear sunglasses
indoors as well as outdoors (even on rainy days), and mingle with the superstars daily. ——
—. A recent survey of students on a large, urban CSU campus revealed that only 2 percent
had surfed, and although 40 percent did wear sunglasses, 15 percent of those were doing so
on their doctors’ recommendations. As for the superstars, barely 10 percent had met a
Hollywood actor.
(A) The possibilities of such stereotypes are endless.
(B) Stereotypes, however, are often misleading.
(C) Probably both Easterners and Californians would like to fit all of those stereotypes.
(D) Most California students do live up to those enviable stereotypes.

18. Accompanying the article on humor were pictures of a leering Groucho Marx and a grinning
Sigmund Freud, one a brilliant humorist and the other a brilliant analyst whose own study of
humor has been largely ignored. The unlikely pair attracted readers to the article, whose
author made two major points. Serious studies of humor are rarely undertaken. ———.
(A) Comics would urge us to laugh, not soberly to study laughter.
(B) What a joke a Freudian analysis of the Marx Brothers would have been.
(C) The studies that are made are rarely taken seriously.
(D) Freud was interested in all aspects of the human mind.

Answer key: 16.A 17.B 18.C
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Part D: Supporting Sentence
Students should be able to read a sentence and decide which of four subsequent sentences will
give appropriate logical support by adding relevant detail stating a probable cause or explanation
providing a supporting example

Students will be asked to discriminate among sentences that might all seem related to the
original sentence, but only one of which provides logical support for the original.
Directions: Each of the following questions presents a topic and four sentences. Select the
sentence that provides the best support for the topic presented.
19. Chester Nakamura is an expert on Samurai swords.
(A) The swords are richly decorated, and their engravings have meaning to the collector.
(B) Collectors around the world seek his advice about swords they plan to buy.
(C) Each Samurai took pride in his sword.
(D) Many people in the United States have extensive collections of such swords.

20. It is not true that intellectual development stops after age 17.
(A) Older people commonly complain of poor memory.
(B) Many older people can learn at least as well as young people can.
(C) People in their 60s, 70s, and 80s have been studied.
(D) Sometimes depression can cause what is assumed to be mental deterioration.

Answer key: 19.B 20.B

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English Placement Test – Score Reporting

Essay Score

Each essay is scored using a scoring guide that defines levels of performance. The essay will be
read by one member of the CSU English faculty. The scores range from a high of 6 to a low of 0.
Students must write on the assigned topic, demonstrate an understanding of the reading passage,
and support their generalizations with specific reasons and examples. Such matters as clarity of
thought, fluency, careful organization, development of ideas, and the use of clear and precise
language all have an important influence upon the score given by each reader.

A different topic is used each time the test is given; all students taking the test at the same time
write on the same topic. Topics are designed to allow all students to display their best writing.
The topics selected are of general interest and should be accessible to all groups of EPT
candidates. All essay topics are pretested at CSU campuses and are given final approval by the
English Placement Test Development Committee.

An Essay score of 3 or below strongly suggests that a student is not prepared for college-level
writing. A low Essay score, combined with a Composing Skills score below 146, suggests that a
student should have at least a one-semester (or quarter equivalent) pre-college writing course. A
low Essay score combined with a Reading Skills score that is below 141 suggests that a student
needs a year of developmental work before taking freshman English.

Reading Skills Score

Critical reading is essential for success in college. Students who do well in this section are ready
for reading demands in college courses. Students who score below 151 on Reading Skills will
benefit from courses designed to strengthen their ability to read critically and to write effectively
about what they have read. All of the reading material is accessible to and appropriate for
college-bound students. Much of the content is of special interest to Californians and reflects the
diversity of cultural experience in the state.

Composing Skills Score

Lack of skill in sentence construction and paragraph development seriously undermines a
student’s ability to succeed at college-level work. This section of the test presents sentence-and
paragraph-level problems that commonly occur in the writing of students not yet prepared for
college-level work.

This portion of the test requires that the student understands the conventions of academic
writing. The EPT is designed to assess how well students can handle the kind of language that
they will encounter as college students. For this reason, the conventions of standard written
English that serve as criteria for the judgment of performance on this section of the test are those
found in most college reading assignments and required of students on papers and examinations.
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How Teachers Can Help Students Prepare for the
English Placement Test

To enhance students’ performance on the Reading Skills portion of the test, coursework should
encourage and require analytical reading of nonfiction as well as fiction. Many students are
placed in developmental courses because of low Reading Skills scores.
While there are many ways to teach the skills measured by the Composing Skills section of the
test, one of the most effective methods is to require revision of student written work.

Online Practice EPT Essay Assignments

The CSU provides teachers with an opportunity to help students prepare for the essay portion of
the English Placement Test (EPT). Using an online tool known as Calibrated Peer Review
(CPR), students will respond to retired EPT essay prompts and engage in an online peer review
process where they will learn to evaluate writing samples using the EPT scoring rubric. Listed
below are the steps that teachers will need to follow to get started with CPR.

Step 1: Learn More About How to Use CPR With Students
Read through the CPR Frequently Asked Questions to determine whether or not
these EPT practice essay test assignments will work for your students.

Step 2: Take the CPR Tour
Take the 30-45 minute Calibrated Peer Review Tour
. This step-by-step overview
of CPR will demonstrate how the online writing and peer review processes work.
To begin, click the link above and select the “Tour” button below the CPR
banner.

Note: in addition to the tour, each participant will be required to take a CPR
pretest (questions based on the tour) one time before first accessing the CPR
program.


The Expository Reading and Writing Course

A task force of high school and CSU faculty has developed the Expository Reading and Writing
Course (ERWC), a full-year college preparatory English course for high school juniors or
seniors. The ERWC aligns with the California English-Language Arts Content Standards,
addresses critical reading and writing problems identified by the CSU English Placement Test
Committee, and prepares students to meet the expectations of college and university faculty.

Course assignments, organized into 14 modules and based mainly on non-fiction texts,
emphasize the in-depth study of expository, analytical, and argumentative reading and writing.
The University of California has approved the ERWC for area "b" credit (from the "a-g"
requirements), and the Course meets college preparatory requirements for both the UC and CSU.
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To promote wide-scale adoption of the ERWC, the CSU and County Offices of Education are
collaborating to provide professional development for English teachers at a variety of locations
across the state. The three and one half-day series includes all of the course materials, provides
teachers with a theoretical understanding of the ERWC, outlines the benefits of the course for
students and school personnel, and offers pragmatic strategies for using the course materials to
teach each module.

The English Placement Test Online

Online EPT Practice Tests (free)

Two Online EPT Practice Tests are available to help students prepare for the multiple choice
portion of the EPT.
Each practice test consists of two sections:
 Reading Skills (45 questions)
 Composing Skills (45 questions)
 Each section of the test must be taken separately
 A detailed score report is provided upon completion of each test
 All tests are free

Printed EPT Practice Test (free)
The Printed EPT Practice Test is a PDF file with 20 sample EPT questions. To take the test
students will need to download and print this file. An answer key is provided to monitor the
results.
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English Placement Test – Essay Scoring Guide

CSU English Placement Test Scoring Guide

At each of the six score points for on-topic papers, descriptors of writing performance are
lettered so that:
a. response to the topic
b. understanding and use of the passage
c. quality and clarity of thought
d. organization, development, and support
e. syntax and command of language
f. grammar, usage, and mechanics

Score of 6: Superior
A typical essay in this category:
A 6 essay is superior writing, but may have minor flaws.
a. addresses the topic clearly and responds effectively to all aspects of the task
b. demonstrates a thorough critical understanding of the passage in developing an
insightful response
c. explores the issues thoughtfully and in depth
d. is coherently organized and developed, with ideas supported by apt reasons and well-
chosen examples
e. has an effective, fluent style marked by syntactic variety and a clear command of
language
f. is generally free from errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics

A 5 essay demonstrates clear competence in writing. It may have some errors, but they are not
serious enough to distract or confuse the reader.
Score of 5: Strong
A typical essay in this category:
a. addresses the topic clearly, but may respond to some aspects of the task more
effectively than others
b. demonstrates a sound critical understanding of the passage in developing a well-
reasoned response
c. shows some depth and complexity of thought
d. is well organized and developed, with ideas supported by appropriate reasons and
examples
e. displays some syntactic variety and facility in the use of language
f. may have a few errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics

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A 4 essay demonstrates adequate writing. It may have some errors that distract the reader, but
they do not significantly obscure meaning.
Score of 4: Adequate
A typical essay in this category:
a. addresses the topic, but may slight some aspects of the task
b. demonstrates a generally accurate understanding of the passage in developing a
sensible response
c. may treat the topic simplistically or repetitively
d. is adequately organized and developed, generally supporting ideas with reasons and
examples
e. demonstrates adequate use of syntax and language
f. may have some errors, but generally demonstrates control of grammar, usage, and
mechanics

Score of 3: Marginal
A typical essay in this category reveals one or more of the following weaknesses:
A 3 essay demonstrates developing competence, but is flawed in some significant way(s).
a. distorts or neglects aspects of the task
b. demonstrates some understanding of the passage, but may misconstrue parts of it or
make limited use of it in developing a weak response
c. lacks focus, or demonstrates confused or simplistic thinking
d. is poorly organized and developed, presenting generalizations without adequate and
appropriate support or presenting details without generalizations
e. has limited control of syntax and vocabulary
f. has an accumulation of errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics that sometimes
interfere with meaning

Score of 2: Very Weak
A typical essay in this category reveals one or more of the following weaknesses:
A 2 essay is seriously flawed.
a. indicates confusion about the topic or neglects important aspects of the task
b. demonstrates very poor understanding of the main points of the passage, does not use
the passage appropriately in developing a response, or may not use the passage at all
c. lacks focus and coherence, and often fails to communicate its ideas
d. has very weak organization and development, providing simplistic generalizations
without support
e. has inadequate control of syntax and vocabulary
f. is marred by numerous errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics that frequently
interfere with meaning





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Score of 1: Incompetent
A typical essay in this category reveals one or more of the following weaknesses:
A 1 essay demonstrates fundamental deficiencies in writing skills.
a. suggests an inability to comprehend the question or to respond meaningfully to the
topic
b. demonstrates little or no ability to understand the passage or to use it in developing a
response
c. is unfocused, illogical, or incoherent
d. is disorganized and undeveloped, providing little or no relevant support
e. lacks basic control of syntax and vocabulary
f. has serious and persistent errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics that severely
interfere with meaning

Readers should not penalize ESL writers excessively for slight shifts in idiom, problems with
articles, confusion over prepositions, and occasional misuse of verb tense and verb forms, so
long as such features do not obscure meaning.

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Sample Essays and Commentaries

The sample topic below is similar to the topic students will be assigned in the Essay Section of
the test. The topic is followed by six sample student essays at score points (1-6). Each essay is
followed by comments on the scoring.
Directions: You will have 45 minutes to plan and write an essay on the topic assigned
below. Before you begin writing, read the passage carefully and plan what you will say.
Your essay should be as well organized and as carefully written as you can make it.
“Advertisers frequently use the testimony of a celebrity to support a claim: a football star touts a
deodorant soap, an actress starts every day with Brand A coffee, a tennis pro gets stamina from
Brand X cereal, a talk-show host drives a certain kind of car. The audience is expected to transfer
approval of the celebrity to approval of the product. This kind of marketing is misleading and
insults the intelligence of the audience. Am I going to buy the newest SUV because an attractive
talk-show host gets paid to pretend he drives one? I don’t think so. We should boycott this kind
of advertising and legislate rules and guidelines for advertisers.”
—Sue Jozui

Explain the argument that Jozui makes and discuss the ways in which you agree or
disagree with her analysis and conclusion. Support your position by providing
reasons and examples from your own experience, observations, or reading.

Essay Score 6
America’s modern culture is unavoidably and irreversibly immersed in the media. Men,
Women, grandmothers, teenagers, even children are subject to the powerful influence of media
today. As Americans, we are subject to an abounding atmosphere of subliminal messages and
culturally strive to be like those we see on television, in the movies, and walking down the
streets of Hollywood. It is vital to realize in our hustle-bustle lives that a billboard with a favorite
celebrity sprawled across it does not deserve respect and extensive praise. As Americans, we
need to do future generations the duty of realizing the media’s powerful hold upon us and
become aware of the negative influences it holds on society as a whole in our daily lives.
Early-morning me is subject to an influential form of media advertisement even before
getting out of bed: my alarm clock radio. Jessica Simpson’s voice resignates in my head; she is
telling me how astounding Proactive Acne Solution is, how it did wonders for her skin and
essentially holds responsibility for her widespread fame. As I eat my cereal, I read the back of
the box where Joe Montana is pictured; he wants me to send-in for a mail-order plush football. I
pass a billboard on my way to work: Angelina Jolie is driving in a bright yellow Hummer maybe
I should too. I, like other average Americans, an subject to these seemingly indifferent, yet
extremely influential advertising ploys all before 10 a.m. Without actually retracing my morning,
I would never notice what advertisements I had been subject to. This is the exact effect
advertisers and marketers wish to have on modern culture. This tremendous hold on Americans
gives the advertisers the power to throw any kind of marketing scam at us, usually without us
even noticing their negative goal: financial benefits. Advertisers and marketers producing media
don’t care whether their target audience is old or very young, selling denchers or cigarettes; as
long as they make their money. It seems that valuable morals have been thrown out the window
in our expanding pop culture of today.
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The big question is, though, how effective are these marketing ploys? Am I really going
to go out and buy Proactive Acne Solution because I think it will do for me what it did for
Jessica Simpson? National studies buy the FCC have said yes. As Sue Jozui’s brilliant and
accurate statement says, the audience subject to celebrity oriented advertisements is expected to
relate approval of the particular celebrity with the approval of the product. This is true, and
certainly insults the intelligence of the target audience. This particular form of advertising by
celebrities is effectively analyzed in Maslow’s Hierarchy: a pyramid structure outlining the
different influential forms of advertising exercised in America. Out of all the different kinds of
advertising claims and subliminal messages, it is proven that celebrity oriented advertising is
more effective. Next thing we know, Tony Danza could be pictured on an ad selling semi-
automatic guns. This possibility is a dangerous and jarring idea that we must prevent as a culture.
The most appropriate solution at hand is to simply realize what type and what quantity of
celebrity oriented ads are influencing you. This can be achieved by media and communications
education, making children and adults more aware of the marketing strategies that confront them.
The FCC has made regulations on what appropriate products celebrities can advertise and how
that can take place.
Although Jazui recommends boycotting advertising, I find this request impossible to
fulfill. We simply could not effectively boycott all celebrity-oriented advertising. It hold much
too broad of an influence on culture today. Media education and an increase in the appropriate
regulations by the FCC will effectively help to protect the psychee’s of American’s today by the
media. We must work towards a modern day America where we, as citizens, realize the influence
of media upon us and acknowledge its presence. This way, future generations will be protected
from buying a weapon, just because Susan Sommers said it was a good idea. It is our
responsibility as Americans to take a moment, sit back, and become one with reality instead of
depending so heavily upon celebrities and the media.

Commentary for the 6 essay
This essay illustrates the scoring guide’s criteria for a score of 6. The superior response indicates
that the writer is very well prepared for the demands of college-level reading and writing.
 The writer approaches the topic with a critical analysis of the impact of advertising on our
buying habits and offers an alternative to Jozui’s proposal to boycott advertisers who rely on
celebrities to sell products.
 This response reflects a thorough understanding of Jozui’s argument. After discussing the
widespread influence of the media, the writer specifically responds to Jozui’s argument that
“approval of the celebrity” results in “approval of the product.”
 The writer extends Jozui’s argument with original analysis, explaining both the effectiveness
and the dangers in these subliminal appeals.
 The writer’s essay is well organized and developed with evidence ranging from the writer’s
personal experience to Mazlov’s Hierarchy of needs and rulings by the FCC.
 The essay exhibits fluent and effective use of language with sophisticated sentences and
precise word choice although occasionally words are misused, such as “an abounding
atmosphere,”
 Errors occur but are typical of on-demand writing such as the occasional spelling errors:
“denchers” for “dentures” and “buy” for “by.”


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Essay Score 5
In a country like the US, that is founded upon competitions and capitalism, producing
clever television advertisements is the only way to keep up with a company’s competitors. If this
means that false information must be presented by doctors, athletes, or celebrities to promote a
product, then so be it. The US believes in freedom of speech, and the first amendment certainly
protects the company’s right to advertise in a testimonial fashion. Secondly, it’s up to the
consumer to determine whether they want to buy a certain product or even believe the ad in the
first place Without question, this country has been using such tactics like this since the beginning
of it’s time. Sue Jozui believes that because these ads sometimes are misleading, and they don’t
prove that it’s a good product being sold, that these advertisements don’t deserve the right to be
shown. Whether or not testimonial propaganda is right or wrong, it should not be boycotted.
Freedom of press guarantees citizens and business the right to advertise however they
like, as long as it does not contain malicious content. If a country didn’t allow harmless ads like
the ones Miss Jozui speaks of, we’d be headed in the direction of turning into an overpowering
totalitarian-style of government. To agree with the entirety of the first amendment, one must be
able to respect the opinions of others even if they are the exact contrary to one’s own values.
It is not the company’s responsibility to warn consumers if an “A-list” celebrity is really
using the product they are endorsing. One of the sole purposes of education is to ensure that
people of all ages can think for themselves and determine what that individual finds true or false.
In such a competitive country like the US, marketing specialists have to use anything they can to
survive in the market place. A person should be able to know that some Olympic athlete isn’t
actually consuming Whoppers and Big Macs, even if that person is talking about how good they
are, or that’s how they like to start off their day. Sue Jozui is clearly trying to avoid the
responsibilities of the smart consumer.
With a simple gland through the United States history, it is easily seen that propaganda is
no new strategy to persuade the common man or woman’s thoughts. During elections, during
war or peace, propaganda has been used by businesses and our government. Politicians like Ike
Eisenhower used cartoons to try and get him elected. The cartoon diverted people’s attention
away from whether he was a good president or not. This nearly the same idea as having a
popular person tell people that the product shown is great. They want people to think “Of if so
and so uses that, it must be swell!” Denying the right to testimonial advertisements is exactly like
completely shunning our country’s past.
Sue Jozui may be right that it’s slightly unfair to trick the buyer into purchasing
something that’s not of the same quality that is presented, but the world isn’t fair. Boycotting
these ads would be against the 1
st
ammendment, and it’s our responsibility to see through these
ploys of trickery. Lastly propaganda is a root of what makes this great nation thrive. Boycotting
ads…


Commentary for the 5 essay
This essay illustrates the scoring guide’s criteria for the score of 5. The clear competence
indicates that this writer is quite ready for the demands of college-level reading and writing.
 The writer addresses the topic with a strong argument in favor of a free marketplace and the
responsibility of consumers to be “smart” about what they choose to believe.
 This writer demonstrates an understanding of Jozui’s argument that celebrity advertisements
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may mislead buyers, but rejects her proposal to boycott companies or regulate ads as an
infringement on freedom.
 The writer argues that it is the right of businesses and others to use “propaganda” to persuade
and that educating smart consumers it the solution. However, the example of political
cartoons is off the point, and the writer ignores the potential harm done by misleading ads.
 The thesis at the end of the first paragraph guides the remainder of the essay. The argument
is supported with analysis and somewhat generalized references to U.S. history.
 The writer displays good control language with occasional wordiness: “this country has been
using such tactics like this since the beginning of its time.”
 Errors are few and not distracting.

Essay Score 4
According to Sue Jozui, advertisements use celebrities to support a claim for their
product. So we as consumers of this product will automatically assume that since this celebrity
uses this product so should we. I agree with Ms. Jouzi in that we should boycott this kind of
advertising. This is because the claims are misleading , these celebrities are not the type of role
models we should look to in order to buy a product, and it insults us as viewers.
We all know, thanks to tabloids, the type of live celebrities are living. They are party
going people who really don’t have a handel on their own life. Why would we as consumers
want to follow in their footsteps? Just because “so-and-so” uses coffee X does not mean that so
should we. If they can’t handle to control their own life then why should the people believe what
they are saying? The fact is, is that we should not. There is no point in looking to celebrities for
guidence on what to buy when we have minds of our own to decide what we like and dislike.
This type of advertising does in fact insult the American people. Making us out to be
mindless people who will believe whatever we see or hear. We are not gullable individuals we
all have different likes and different dislikes and for advertisers to assume that we will buy a
product based off of what we see celebrities using is insulting. It is also insulting because it
makes people believe that if they don’t buy this product then we are not “normal” we as a whole
need to stand-up for what we like and not conform to what we view, through advertisements, to
what celebrities are using. We need to decide for ourselves what we like & want to buy.
We as advertisement viewers are walking blind. Can we not see that advertisements are
misleading? We all no that when we see a celebrity, in an advertisement, eating cereal Z, that
does not mean that on a regular basis they are eating it. So then why do we believe that it is not a
product that he/she actually enjoys. They are getting paid to use it, and getting paid to tell us how
“amazing” that product is. We need to remember in our minds that all that celebrities say may
not be true, it is misleading.
To boycott this kind of misleading advertisements would be very effective in helping
viewers make decisions of a product based on their own personal views and not what they see
celebrities doing. Let us as a people set rules and guidelines for these advertisers. Why should we
follow these celebrities who’s own lives are not under controll? We are intelligent people and we
should not let advertisement s impune that. There most deffinately should be rules and guidlines
that advertisers should have to follow.




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Commentary for the 4 essay
This essay illustrates the scoring guide’s criteria for the score of 4. The adequate response to the
topic suggests that this writer should be able to handle college-level reading and writing.

 The writer responds to the topic by completely agreeing with Jozui that consumers should
boycott celebrity advertising but only minimally analyzes her argument.
 The essay demonstrates understanding of Jozui’s position and addresses her arguments that
celebrity advertising is insulting and misleading, but fails to address the proposal to boycott
or legislation about celebrity advertisement.
 The writer oversimplifies the issue of celebrity advertising by failing to consider, for
example, the role of advertisers in a consumer society and the responsibility of individuals to
critically evaluate advertisements.
 The essay is clearly but formulaically organized. Examples are hypothetical and the writer
over-generalizes about both celebrities and consumers.
 The language of the essay is adequate, but errors and imprecision occur throughout: “If they
can’t handle to control their own life then why should the people believe what they are
saying?”
 Sentence fragments, punctuation, and spelling errors occur with some frequency.

Essay Score 3
Advertisers have a difficult job of marketing products; making products appear to be the
best solution. Sometimes, using celebrities in commercials help to sell the product. Today, the
population of America is infatuated with celebrities. We all know who is dating who in
Hollywood, which dress did the hottest movie star wear, and so on. Therefore, it is
understandible to see how advertising a product endorsed by a celebrity can be easier to sell.
Some may say that this type of advertising is misleading. I disagree because
advertisements and commercials are not solely based on the celebrities use. They are based on
the products ability, information on how the product functions, and recommendations of how and
why this product is the best for you. Consumers, then, could go out and purchase a product with
the information given to them. And while there may be trial and error involved, it is hardly
misleading.
Consumer need to use their own judgement when purchasing products. The advertiser is
there to promote and sell the product, but also to give information as well. No, I wouldn’t
purchase a diet pill simply because my favorite singer has endorsed it. I would do a little research
before making the purchase. Would I try a new soda promoted by a celebrity? Yes, if I like the
taste, that soda will be a regular purchase, and if not I’ll buy a different soda! I feel advertisers
have the right to promote their product by using whatever appeals to the public, and in turn the
public should use their own judgement in purchasing the product.

Commentary for the 3 essay
This essay illustrates the scoring guide’s criteria for a score of 3. Although the essay suggests
developing competence, it is flawed in significant ways that suggest the writer needs additional
preparation before succeeding in college-level reading and writing.

 The writer responds to the topic by disagreeing that advertising is misleading while arguing
that consumers must use their own judgment.
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 The essay fails to address the proposal to boycott or legislate about celebrity advertisements
and the writer’s position is not clearly articulated: “I disagree because advertisements and
commercials are not solely based on the celebrities use.”
 The organization of the essay is confusing and development is lacking. The evidence is
limited to the writer’s own response to advertisements and the assertion that “the public
should use their own judgment.”
 The writer exhibits some fluency but lacks precision: “Some may say that this type of
advertising is misleading.” “They [advertisements] are based on the product’s ability, . . .”.

Essay Score 2
If a football star touts a deodorant soap, an actress starts everyday with brand. A coffee, a
tennis pro get stamina from Brand X cereal and if a talk show host drives a certain car it does not
mean that your going to do that. I agree with Jozui if an atractive talk-show host gets paid to
pretend to drive a car, it does not mean that your going to go buy one.
It would be good boycotting this kind of advertisement but theres always a positive &
negative side to the advertisements. Boycotting this advertisement will be good so it wont be
misleading or insulting anyones intelligence. If a celebraty want to be advertised with a product
or something at their own I think they have the right to. On my positive side of it I see it that its
okay to be advertised, one thing is to be advertised & get known or get the product known, and
another thing is buying the product.
Some examples are for May 1
st
theres been a law trying to pass people, news reporters,
and radio stitons were saying that on May first no one should go out & boycott by not buying
anything that day, and not even going to work. That was getting known, so that point was to do a
lot of peoples ears but not everyone did it about sixty to seventy percent of people I bet did not
listen to them, if they were not going to work who was going to pay them for those hours lost no
one, but, the other thirty to forty person of people did do the boycott. They did no care about it
they want the law to pass.
Everyone has the right to advertise. But its not like your going to go buy something just
because come one else did. You have to follow your thought do what you wanna do not do what
you see other people do.


Commentary for the 2 essay
This essay illustrates the scoring guide’s criteria for a score of 2. The serious flaws indicate the
writer will need considerable preparation to be ready for college-level reading and writing.
 The writer begins by responding to the topic of celebrity advertising and the proposal to
boycott it, but then goes off topic and writes about another kind of boycott entirely.
 The essay reflects a lack of understanding of Jozui’s arguments and seems instead to be
discussing the right of celebrities to be in advertisements and the consequences for people
who participate in boycotts.
 The essay has no apparent focus or organization. After agreeing with Jozui, the writer tries
to mount a pro and con argument, and by the third paragraph resorts simply to a stream of
consciousness.
 The lack of command of language makes it difficult to understand what the writer is saying:
“If a celebraty want to be advertised with a product or something of their own I think they
have the right to.”

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 A variety of serious errors occur throughout the essay. The third paragraph is composed
almost entirely of a single run-on sentence.

Essay Score 1
Joeu’s argument discuss something that is going own every were in the world. In this
day’s we advertis every thing with the celebrity’s support. That’s why I don’t agree with Joeu’s.
We should not do a doycott to try to stop this kind of advertising.
Every body has the right to make their economy grow by capitalizin. The celebraty are
just doing a job and is up to you if you what to bug their products. Advertizing is just economy.
This depend on you. When, how, and are you going to produce. For example what ever it goes it
come’s back. The Invisible Hand”, sellers use to thing that alot, they use to say that their own
costumers were going to come by their self. That true if only thing that you had it to do was you
put it.

Commentary for the 1 essay
This essay illustrates the scoring guide’s criteria for a score of 1. Its fundamental problems
indicate the writer will need a great deal of preparation to be ready for college-level reading and
writing.
 The writer appears to understand the topic but is unable to respond to it meaningfully.
 The writer is unable to explain Jozui’s arguments and why a boycott should not be used
against advertisers who use celebrities. The attempt to relate economic theory “the
Invisible Hand” to the topic is unsuccessful.
 The essay is too underdeveloped to demonstrate organization or to provide support for the
writer’s position that “Every body has the right to make their economy grow by capitalizm.”
 The connections between sentences are unclear making the argument difficult to follow:
“Advertising is just ecomony. This depend on you. Whom, How, and are you going to
produce.”
 Errors in verb form, plurals of nouns, omitted subjects, and pervasive spelling and
punctuation errors all interfere with meaning.