Tài liệu Chương 3 ACARS docx

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Trường Đại học Bách Khoa Hà Nội
Hanoi University of Science and Technology
© HUST 2012

Hệ thông Thông tin Hàng Không
TS. Đỗ Trọng Tuấn
Bộ môn Kỹ thuật thông tin
Trường Đại học Bách Khoa Hà Nội
Hanoi University of Science and Technology
ACARS
Chương 3
© HUST 2012

Hệ thống Thông tin Hàng Không
Teminologies
3
ACARS: Acraft Communication Adressing Reporting System
POA: Plain Old ACARS
AOA : ACARS Over AVLC
AVLC: Aviation VHF Link Control (VDL2)
AEEC: Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee



Aeronautical Telecommunication (ATN)
Network Environment
ATN ROUTER
ATN ROUTER ATN ROUTER
Avionics Subnetwork
Mode S Subnetwork HF Subnetwork Satellite Subnetwork VHF Subnetwork
CAA Ground
Subnetwork
Management
Processor
ATN End System
Aeronautical
Operations
Data Base
ATN End System
Data Display
Processor
ATN End System
Data Entry
Processor
ATN End System
Management
Processor
ATN End System
Aeronautical
Operations
Control
ATN End System
Weather
Data Base
ATN End System
ATC
ATN End System
FIS
Data Base
ATN End System
Weather
Data Base
ATN End System
Service Provider
Ground Subnetwork
Airline Ground
Subnetwork
Evolution of Aviation Wireless
Communications
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
PanAm Satcom
Demo
FANS Committee
VDL Mode 2
CPDLC I&IA
PETAL II & LINK 2000
ATN - ISO Definition
GPS
SATCOM (ATS,AOC,APC)
CPDLC II & III
NEXCOM VDL Mode 3
VDL Mode 4
CNS/ATM - FANS 1&A
2025+
ACARS
EACARS & AVPAC Attempts
Passenger Telephone Systems
HF Data Link
ATN - IPv? Definition
SATS
Chris Wargo., Aviation Wireless Communications, IAB Workshop on Wireless Internetworking, 2000
Evolution of Aviation Wireless
Communications
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
PanAm Satcom
Demo
FANS Committee
VDL Mode 2
CPDLC I&IA
PETAL II & LINK 2000
ATN - ISO Definition
GPS
SATCOM (ATS,AOC,APC)
CPDLC II & III
NEXCOM VDL Mode 3
VDL Mode 4
CNS/ATM - FANS 1&A
2025+
ACARS
EACARS & AVPAC Attempts
Passenger Telephone Systems
HF Data Link
ATN - IPv? Definition
SATS
Chris Wargo., Aviation Wireless Communications, IAB Workshop on Wireless Internetworking, 2000
Type
Size Indication
Commercial Aviation
15,000 Aircraft plus
( times # of passengers)
Business Aviation
25,000 Aircraft plus
General Aviation
100,000 Aircraft plus
Cargo Aviation
10,000 Aircraft plus
Military
50,000 Aircraft plus
Government 184 Countries of ICAO
Global Customers of the Wireless Aviation Market
Chris Wargo., Aviation Wireless Communications, IAB Workshop on Wireless Internetworking, 2000
Development Trends
AOC : Aeronautical Operational Control,
AAC : Aeronautical Administrative Communications
APC : Aeronautical passenger Communication
ATSC: Air Traffic Services Communication
Data link
 AAC (Aeronautical Administrative Communication): Communication
used by aeronautical operating agencies relating to non-safety
communications for the business aspects of operating their flights
and transport services.
 AOC (Aeronautical Operational Control): Communication required
for the exercise of authority over the initiation, continuation,
diversion or termination of flight for safety, regularity and efficiency
reasons.
 ATSC (Air Traffic Services Communication). A generic term
meaning variously, flight information service, alerting service, air
traffic advisory service, air traffic control service (area control
service, approach control service or aerodrome control service).
 APC (Air Passenger Communications), defined as services to
passengers providing them an access to communications and
entertainment means similar to those that can be experienced on
ground.
9
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
 3 types of networks are under operation today in the
aeronautical world for aircraft – ground communications for
cockpit/maintenance/cabin operations:
10
?
ACARS (Aircraft Communications Addressing and
Reporting System) used for AAC/AOC/ATC
ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network)
used for ATC
IP used for AAC/AOC (mostly aircraft IT systems),
as well as APC
* Simon Plass, Furture Aeronautical Communications, Intech Open Access Publishingm 2011, pp.26
ACARS::Introduction
11
http://www.arinc.com/products/voice_data_comm/acars.html
ACARS
®
performs many crucial functions:
Abnormal flight condition identification
Detailed engine reports
Repair and maintenance plan
Manual e-mail-type messaging between crew and ATC
Weather reports
ACARS::Introduction
12
•Short telex-like messages between plane and ground.
•Uses VHF (117.975 - 137 MHz) and Satellites
•Uses HF in the polar region (HF ACARS)
•Developed by ARINC in 1978.
Typical Data Link Applications
Taxi

From Aircraft
Link test/clock
Update
Fuel/crew information
Delay reports
Out

To Aircraft
PDC
ATIS
Weight & balance
Airport analysis
V-speeds flight
Plan-hard copy
Load FMC
Take-off

From Aircraft
Off
Departure

From Aircraft
Engine data
Ascent Weather
reports

To Aircraft
Flight plan
Updated weather
En route

From Aircraft
Position reports
Weather reports
Delay info/ETA
Voice request
Engine info
Maintenance info

To Aircraft
ATC oceanic clearances
Weather reports
Re-clearances
Ground voice request
(SELCAL)
Approach

From Aircraft
Provisioning
Gate requests
ETA
Special requests
Engine info
Maintenance info
Descent Weather
reports

To Aircraft
Gate assignments
Connecting gates
Passenger & crew
ATIS
Landing

From Aircraft
On

Taxi

From Aircraft
In
Fuel info
Crew info
Fault data
(from central
maintenance
computer)

Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)
ACARS
As the first sizable air–ground data radio solution,
and still very much in practice today ACARS was
available in the late 1970s.
 It is non-standardized in ICAO. It uses character-
oriented data (ASCII based; maximum 220
characters per message).
 The air interface runs at 2.4 kbps in 25 kHz, using
amplitude-modulated minimum shift keying
14
ACARS
A digital data system using the aircrafts VHF radio
to communicate with operators using data bursts.
Communication from Air to Ground (Downlinks)
and Ground to Air (Uplinks) transferring all types of
information to and from the aircraft. Usage
includes information such as departure times,
position reports, reports to maintenance, weather,
passenger problems etc.
A standard data burst will contain the Aircraft
registration, message label, flight ID and message
content.

15
ACARS
16
A sample ACARS message that would have come from that data burst.
(contains weather info)
World Designated ACARS Frequencies
17
18
Communication
Management Unit
(CMU)
SATCOM
AERO-1
System
SATCOM
AERO-H/H+
System
VHF
Voice/DATA
System
HF
Voice/DATA
System
GateLink
File Server
Subsystem
Printer
ARINC 741
ARINC 761
ARINC 740/744
ARINC 719
ARINC 753
ARINC 716
ARINC 750
Terminal
Ethernet
(Optional)
Typical ACARS Onboard Network
19
Current Avionics Architecture
 ACARS is based upon an all-in-one communications
management unit.
 Origin can be traced back to global teleprinter network, telex,
established in the 1920s!
 Point-to-point telex network where all messages come to a central
processing location
 Today ACARS is widely deployed in commercial airlines.
 ATN network is an attempt to modernize ACARS, using
most of the existing radio technologies with limited
modifications.
 Deployed in a closed, aeronautics-only network
• Limited flexibility
 Cannot adapt easily to new technologies, new communication
protocols, and new communication links
 Security currently is extremely limited at best; however,
specifications have been updated in an attempt to rectify this
• Limited bandwidth makes security difficult
Trường Đại học Bách Khoa Hà Nội
Hanoi University of Science and Technology

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